War Prevention Case Studies

This table contains a repository of short case studies researched and developed by Dr. Elliot Short with the support of philanthropist Milton Lauenstein.  These cases form an important part of the Better Evidence Project’s Resource Center as evidence that war and violence are not inevitable and can be prevented.  In some cases, the prevention may only be short-term while in others the resulting peace has been sustained.  To find resources and cases you are interested in, you can search by Country Name, Type of Conflict, Type of Peace Initiative, or Impact.  The Table will automatically populate as you search.

You can expand the number of entries to view by toggling the Show entries box to the left and select the number of sources you would like to view.  Each case is unique and is meant to provide information and additional sources that can help practitioners learn what worked in cases of war prevention.

War Prevention Case Studies

These cases were prepared by Dr. Elliot Short and are curated here by the Better Evidence Project team
YearsCountryType of ConflictType of InitiativeMain ImplementerImpact SummaryLearn More
1991 - 1998SomaliaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Local action and peace infrastructure.Local people and organisations.LimitedMost of north-east Somalia was spared from the conflicts and famines of the 1990s thanks to the efforts of local people and organisations in Puntland to reduce armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/bringing-stability-to-somalia/
1992 - 1995PhilippinesVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement. The Government of the Philippines.LastingA peace agreement mediated by an agency of the Government of the Philippines ended the repeated efforts of the Soldiers of the Filipino People, the Young Officers’ Union, and the Revolutionary Nationalist Alliance factions of the military to seize power with force.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-philipinnes-soldiers/
1978 - PresentLebanonHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Peacekeeping missionThe UNLimitedUN Peacekeepers have helped maintain stability and contain or end several armed conflicts in Lebanon since 1978.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/maintaining-stability-and-containing-armed-conflict-in-lebanon/
1998 - 1999Guinea-BissauVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionThe Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, CPLP) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).LimitedMediation by the CPLP and ECOWAS helped to end the civil war in Guinea-Bissau.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-guinea-bissau/
1994 - PresentColombiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Local action and an observation missionLocal people and organisations and the NGO Peace Brigades International.LimitedPeace communities created by local people caught in the crossfire during the armed conflict in Colombia (and accompanied by Peace Brigades International since 1997) have helped to mitigate the impact of the fighting on civilians.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-in-colombia/
2006 - 2010Chad, SudanVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Risk of an Interstate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement.The governments of Senegal, Saudi Arabia, and LibyaLastingA peace agreement mediated by the Government of Senegal helped to end years of proxy conflict between the governments of Chad and Sudan and reduce the risk of a major interstate conflict between them.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-proxy-conflict-between-chad-and-sudan/
1995Ecudaor, PeruInterstate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and an observation missionThe Guarantors of the Rio de Janeiro ProtocolLastingThe mediation of four regional governments (the Guarantors of the Rio De Janeiro Protocol) led by Brazil ended the interstate conflict between Ecuador and Peru in 1995 after just over one month of fighting.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-ecuador-and-peru/
1993 -1997NigerVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreementThe governments of Algeria, Burkina Faso, and FranceLimitedThe 1991-1997 Tuareg rebellion in Niger was ended by a series of peace agreements, heralding a decade of relative peace in the countryhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-niger/
2001 - 2017Solomon IslandsRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.A monitoring mission and a peacekeeping mission. The governments of Pacific states led by Australia and the Commonwealth.LastingThe International Peace Monitoring Team, Peace Monitoring Council, and Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands helped to prevent armed conflict in Solomon Islands after the unrest of 1999-2000https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-in-solomon-islands/
1991 - 2001BahrainRisk of an Interstate Conflict. Diplomacy, mediation of a peace agreement, and the resolution of a militarised territorial dispute. The Government of Saudi Arabia and the International Court of Justice.LastingThe longstanding militarised territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar regarding the Hawar Islands was prevented by the diplomatic intervention of the Government of Saudi Arabia and resolved by the International Court of Justice in 2001.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-bahrain-and-qatar/
2017 - PresentThe GambiaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.DiplomacyThe African Union and the Economic Community of West African States.LastingThe deployment of an Economic Community of West African States peacekeeping force has helped The Gambia to prevent a constitutional crisis that from escalating into an armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-the-gambia/
1999 - 2012Timor-LesteRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping mission and a transitional international administration.The UN.LastingA transitional international administration and a peacekeeping mission helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Timor-Leste and laid the foundations for an accountable state governed by a constitution and an elected government to be built.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-timor-leste/
2011 - PresentSudan/South SudanRisk of an Interstate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionThe Government of South Africa and the UNLimitedA UN peacekeeping mission has helped to prevent renewed armed conflict in the contested area of Abyei for a decadehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-between-south-sudan-and-sudan-abyei/
2017 - 2018LesothoRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictA peacekeeping missionThe African Union and the Southern African Development CommunityLastingThe Southern African Development Committee Preventive Mission in Lesotho helped to maintain stability during a period of severe political crisis in Lesotho, preventing an armed conflict from erupting in 2017.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-lesotho/
2001 - 2018Iran - AzerbajianRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and resolving a militarised territorial disputeThe governments of Caspian Sea littoral statesLastingAn interstate conflict between Iran and Azerbaijan was prevented and the risk of war between any of the littoral states on the Caspian Sea was demonstrably reduced.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-the-caspian-sea/
2008 - 2009Democratic Republic of CongoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementAn observation mission, diplomacy, legal prosecution, and the mediation of a peace agreementThe UN and the governments of Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda.LimitedThe armed conflict between the Congress for the Defence of the People and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo in North Kivu was ended with a peace agreement following a UN investigationhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-north-kivu-cndp/
2003 - 2006GuyanaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacy, a monitoring mission, and peace infrastructureThe Carter Center, Commonwealth, Organisation of American States, and the UNLastingThe UN Social Cohesion Program and the deployment of international observers from a range of intergovernmental organisations helped to ensure that the 2006 elections in Guyana did not spark an armed conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guyana/
2012 - 2013Democratic Republic of CongoHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement, diplomacy, and a peacekeeping missionThe International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), UN, and the governments of Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and UgandaLimitedThe armed conflict in North Kivu between the Congolese government and the M23 armed group was ended by the deployment of a peacekeeping mission, regional diplomacy, and a peace agreementhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-north-kivu-m23/
1992 - 1996PhilippinesVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement and peace infrastructureThe Organisation of Islamic Conference and the governments of Indonesia and Libya.LimitedNegotiations mediated by the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) and the governments of Indonesia and Libya, and supported by an OIC Joint Ceasefire Commission, ended the armed conflict between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philipinnes-mindanao-mnlf/
1995 - 1998YemenRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe Government of France, the UN, and the Permanent Court of Arbitration.LastingThe immediate threat of armed conflict was ended and the territorial dispute over the Hanish Islands was resolved by the Permanent Court of Arbitrationhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-eritrea-and-yemen/
1994 - 1999AngolaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionThe UN and the governments of Portugal, USA, and USSRLimitedThe fighting in Angola was significantly reduced for approximately five years thanks to the mediation efforts of the UN and the governments of Portugal and USAhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-angola-for-five-years/
1993KenyaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Local action, the mediation of a peace agreement, and peace infrastructure.The UN and the governments of Portugal, USA, and USSR.LastingThe armed conflict between clans in Wajir County, Kenya, was ended in 1993https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-kenya-wajir/
1974 - PresentIsrael, SyriaRisk of an Interstate ConflictA peacekeeping missionThe UNLimitedThe United Nations Disengagement Observer Force has helped to prevent renewed war between Israel and Syria since 1974https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-between-israel-and-syria/
1998 - 2000EritreaInterstate ConflictDiplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, and a peacekeeping mission.The UN, the Organisation of African Unity, and the Government of Algeria.LastingThe war between Eritrea and Ethiopia was ended by mediation efforts led by the Organisation of African Unity during negotiations held in Algeria and the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) to the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-eritrea-and-ethiopia/
2008 - 2011Djibouti, EritreaRisk of an Interstate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping mission.The Government of QatarLastingA low-intensity interstate conflict between Djibouti and Eritrea was prevented from escalating into a major war thanks to the mediation efforts of the Government of Qatar and the deployment of a Qatari peacekeeping mission.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-djibouti-and-eritrea/
1997 - 1998AlbaniaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA Peacekeeping mission and a political missionThe Government of Italy, Multinational Protection Force, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.LastingThe Multinational Protection Force and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe Presence in Albania helped to restore order, monitored the border with Kosovo, and mediated a peaceful end to an attempted coup d’état in 1998https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-albania/
1985 - 1991RussiaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate Conflict.Diplomacy and monitoring missionsThe Government of the Soviet Union, the European Community, Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. LastingA potentially volatile collapse of the Soviet Union took place peacefully thanks to the measured response of the Soviet leadership and the presence of international mechanisms that prevented instability and uncertainty from escalating into armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ensuring-that-the-collapse-of-the-soviet-union-remained-peaceful/
1992 - 1994South AfricaRisk of a Conflict Relapse.Local action and monitoring missions. The Commonwealth, EU, Organisation of African Unity, and the UN, along with local people and organisations. LastingThe deployment of monitoring missions by the Commonwealth, EU, Organisation of African Unity, and the UN helped to prevent violence during the 1994 elections and ensured that South Africa did not experience a conflict relapse after the transition from apartheid. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-south-africa/
2002 - PresentHorn of AfricaRisk of Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictPeace infrastructureThe Intergovernmental Authority on DevelopmentLimitedThe Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism established by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development has used data, technology, and a decentralised network of people and organisations to build an effective early warning system that has demonstrably reduced armed conflict across the Horn of Africahttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-the-horn-of-africa-with-peace-infrastructure/
2008 - 2009GhanaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMilitary intervention, peace infrastructure, local action, and monitoring missions. The Government of Ghana and local people and organisations.LastingGhanaian people and organisations worked alongside the government and security services to ensure that the 2008 elections did not spark an armed conflict in Ghanahttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/
2002 - 2004IndonesiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Military intervention and the mediation of a peace agreementThe Government of IndonesiaLastingThe armed conflict in Maluku was ended by an Indonesian military operation and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-maluku/
1991 - PresentWestern SaharaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Risk of an Interstate ConflictA peacekeeping mission, a monitoring mission, and an international transitional administrationThe UN.LimitedThe United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara has helped to prevent renewed armed conflict in Western Sahara since 1991. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-western-sahara/
2013 - 2018TunisiaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Local action and the mediation of a peace agreementThe National Dialogue Quartet.LastingThe National Dialogue Quartet, a consortium of four major Tunisian civil society organisations, helped to prevent armed conflict and guide their country on a peaceful course in the wake of the 2011 Jasmine Revolution.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-tunisia/
2001North MacedoniaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Risk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, a peacekeeping mission, and peace infrastructureThe EU, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in EuropeLastingArmed conflict was prevented once again in Macedonia in 2001, in this case by a diplomatic intervention by a range of intergovernmental organisations, the deployment of a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation peacekeeping mission, and the strengthening of existing peace infrastructurehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-fyr-macedonia-2001/
2000 - 2018Eritrea, EthiopiaRisk of an Interstate ConflictA peacekeeping mission and the resolution of a militarised border disputeThe UN and the Permanent Court of Arbitration.LastingThe United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea helped to prevent renewed interstate conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia while the militarised territorial dispute that sparked the 1998-2000 war was eventually resolved by the work of the Independent Boundary Commission of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-and-resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-eritrea-and-ethiopia/
2008Colombia, EcuadorRisk of an Interstate Conflict. DiplomacyThe Organisation of American States and the Rio Group.LastingA war between Colombia and Ecuador, which was likely to have drawn in Venezuela as well, was avoided with the help of a diplomatic intervention from the Organisation of American States and the Rio Group.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-between-colombia-and-ecuador-and-venezuela/
2015 - 2016 NigeriaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictPeace infrastructure and mediation of a peace agreementLocal people and organisations and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.LastingThe efforts of local people and organisations, the local administration, and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue helped to bring 29 communities affected by armed conflict together and create a peace agreement and an infrastructure to support and monitor implementationhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-kaduna-state/
2005IranRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacyThe EU3 (the governments of France, Germany, and the UK) and the P5+1 (UN Security Council plus German government).LastingOngoing international dialogue with the Government of Iran and the diplomatic initiatives of the EU3 and P5+1 helped to prevent the ongoing Iranian diplomatic crisis from escalating into an interstate armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-an-interstate-conflict-during-the-diplomatic-crisis-with-iran/
1994 - 1996GhanaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMilitary intervention and the mediation of a peace agreementThe Government of Ghana, local people and organisations.LastingThe Guinea Fowl War in the Northern Region of Ghana was ended by the deployment of troops and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-ghana-northern-region/
2014 – PresentUkraineVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Risk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and a monitoring missionThe Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. LimitedThe armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine has been contained to the oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk with help from the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, which deployed a monitoring mission to the region and has facilitated dialogue between the belligerents since the war began.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-ukraine/
1990 - 1994ChadInterstate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate ConflictResolution of a militarised territorial dispute, a peacekeeping mission, and stabilising international bordersThe Organisation of African Unity, the UN, and the International Court of JusticeLastingFollowing the International Court of Justice’s judgement of the dispute, the United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group monitored the withdrawal of Libyan troops from the area and helped ensure that the handover of the disputed territory to Chad went ahead peacefully.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-chad-and-libya/
2006Democratic Republic of CongoRisk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Armed Conflict, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementA peacekeeping mission and local action.The EU, UN, and the Congolese governmentLastingAn armed conflict was prevented during the 2006 general elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo thanks to the concerted efforts of local people and organisation, the Congolese administration, and donors such as the EU.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo/
2002 - PresentPhilippinesVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictMediation of a peace agreementThe local NGO Balay Mindanaw.LimitedNegotiations mediated by the local NGO Balay Mindanaw stopped the fighting between the Revolutionary Workers’ Party – Mindanao and the Government of Philippines in 2005 and ongoing efforts, although unable to produce a peace agreement, have prevented further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philippines-revolutionary-workers-party-mindanao/
2002 - 2008ComorosRisk of a Conflict RelapseDiplomacy, an observation mission, a military intervention, and the mediation of a peace agreement.The Organisation of African Unity/African Union, the Government of France, and the Arab League.LastingOngoing negotiations and the deployment of Organisation of African Unity/African Union observer missions and a military operation helped to ensure that Comoros did not experience a conflict relapse. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-comoros/
1994 - PresentMexicoVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictMonitoring MissionAn NGO supported by donors and local people and organizationsLimitedAlthough the conflict between the Zapatista movement and the Government of Mexico has not been resolved, the fighting has been effectively contained since 1997.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-mexico-chiapas/
1997-1998Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of Great BritainHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreementLocal people and organisations and the governments of Ireland, the UK, and the USA.LastingNegotiations mediated by the Government of USA resulted in the signing of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement/Belfast Agreement, which ended almost three decades of armed conflict and intercommunal violence in Northern Ireland. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-armed-conflict-in-the-uk-northern-ireland/
1986 - PresentPhilippinesVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictLocal action and peace infrastructure.Local people and organisations.LimitedBy creating and maintaining zones of peace, local people and organisations reduced the impact of armed conflict on the civilian population.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-on-civilians-in-the-philippines/
1998 - PresentFranceRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and a monitoring missionThe Government of France and the UNLastingA series of peace agreements mediated by the French government and the ongoing supervision of the UN Special Committee on Decolonisation has ensured that the debate over the future of New Caledonia has not escalated into armed conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-france-new-caledonia/
1992 - 1994MozambiqueRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping mission.The UN.LastingThe United Nations Operations in Mozambique helped to maintain peace and stability in extremely adverse conditions in post-war Mozambique.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-mozambique/
2011 - 2017SpainVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictOther (Assisting a party to a conflict to disarm and disband).The Dialogue Advisory Group (DAG) and other international NGOs.LastingThe work of international NGOs helped to end the conflict between the Government of Spain and the Basque separatist movement, ETA.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-spain/
1990 - 1993South AfricaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict; Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and local actionLocal civil society organisationsLastingThe armed conflict between the African National Congress (ANC) and the Government of South Africa was ended and the risk of a larger war was minimisedhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-africa/
2000 - 2008Sierra LeoneRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping missionThe UN.LastingThe United Nations Mission to Sierra Leone disarmed over 70,000 combatants, oversaw a peaceful election, and helped to strengthen the Sierra Leonean state, preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-sierra-leone/
2005 - 2006NepalVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictLocal action and the mediation of a peace agreementLocal people and organisations and the UN.LastingNepalese political parties worked together with widespread public support to find a political solution to the ongoing armed conflict in Nepal and mediate the negotiation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which brought an end to a decade of war and created the framework for a lasting peace.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nepal/
2015 - PresentSouth SudanRisk of a conflict relapseMediation of a peace agreement, a peacekeeping mission, and peace infrastructure.The African Union, Catholic Church, Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and the governments of Ethiopia, Sudan, and UgandaLastingThe mediation efforts of a wide range of international actors and the protestations of the Pope helped to end the armed conflict in South Sudan in 2018.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-sudan/
2015Burkina FasoRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Diplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreement.Local people and organisations, and the African UnionLastingPreventive diplomacy by the African Union and locally led mediation efforts helped to prevent a war in Burkina Faso following a military coup d’état. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-burkina-faso/
1993- PresentGeorgiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.A peacekeeping mission and a monitoring mission.The Confederation of Independent States, the EU, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the UN.LimitedA series of international and regional peacekeeping missions have helped to contain the armed conflict in Abkhazia, preventing a conflict relapse that could have sparked much broader regional confrontations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-georgia-abkhazia/
2000 - 20003IndonesiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Military intervention.The Government of Indonesia, local people and organisations.LastingThe deployment of Indonesian security forces to North Maluku ended the intercommunal conflict and prevented further fighting.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-north-maluku/
1997 - 2003ComorosVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and an observer missionThe Organisation of African Unity, l’Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Government of France, and the Arab LeagueLastingThe Organisation of African Unity-led diplomatic intervention helped to end the armed conflict in Comoros after several rounds of talks culminated with the creation of a federal Comorian statehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-comoros/
1990 - 1994MoldovaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacyThe Government of MoldovaLastingA second war in Moldova during the 1990s was prevented thanks to the negotiation of an effective political compromise with Gagauz leaders.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-moldova-gagauzia/
2002 - 2007IndonesiaRisk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Military intervention, legal prosecution, peace infrastructure, and local action.The Government of Indonesia, local people and organisations.LastingStability in Central Sulawesi was restored, ending the intercommunal conflict and preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-indonesia-central-sulawesi/
2000 - 2019Belize, GuatemalaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy, an observation mission, and the mediation of a peace agreementThe Organisation of American StatesLastingA diplomatic intervention by the Organisation of American States helped to prevent an interstate conflict between Belize and Guatemala in 1999-2000. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-belize-and-guatemala/
2011 - 2021Ethiopia, KenyaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate ConflictPeace infrastructure and stabilising bordersLocal people and organisations, the Ethiopian and Kenyan governments, and the EU, Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and UN.LastingArmed conflict between communities living near the Ethiopia-Kenya border was reduced and the risk of interstate conflict was significantly reduced. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-kenya-border/
2000 - PresentThe Great LakesRisk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and peace infrastructureThe International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), the African Union, and the UN.LastingAfter being established by the African Union and the UN, the ICGLR has prevented further interstate conflict in the Great Lakes since 2003.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-in-the-great-lakes/
1991 - 2001DjiboutiVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionThe Government of FranceLastingA series of peace agreements mediated by the Government of France ended the armed conflict in Djibouti and French peacekeepers helped to verify implementationhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-djibouti/
1986 - 1992El SalvadorVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvmentMediation of a peace agreementThe UNLastingAfter 12 years of devastating civil war, the armed conflict in El Salvador was finally ended after negotiations mediated by the UN culminated with the signing of the Chapultepec Peace Accords in 1992.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-el-salvador/
1994 - 1997TajikistanVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.A peacekeeping mission and the mediation of a peace agreement. The Confederation of Independent States, Inter-Tajik Dialogue, Organisation of Islamic Conference, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the UN, and regional governments. LastingA series of multilateral peacekeeping and monitoring missions and the mediation efforts of the UN and the Inter-Tajik Dialogue helped to bring an end to the intrastate armed conflict in Tajikistan in 1997. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-tajikistan/
1994 - 2006Cameroon, NigeriaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy, resolution of a militarised territorial dispute, mediation of a peace agreement, and stabilising international bordersThe UN, International Court of Justice, the Organisation of African Unity, and the governments of France, Gabon, and TogoLastingA militarised territorial dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria was resolved by the International Court of Justice, the Organisation of African Unity, and the UN helped to ensure the peaceful withdrawal of Nigerian forces from the contested area.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-cameroon-and-nigeria/
1999 - 2001Sierra LeoneVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMilitary intervention and a peacekeeping missionThe Economic Community of West African States, the UN, and the British government.LastingThe war in Sierra Leone was ended and constitutional rule was re-established by a British military intervention in support of a UN peacekeeping mission after over a decade of conflict and devastationhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-sierra-leone/
2014 - PresentLiberia, Côte d’IvoireHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate ConflictStabilising borders and a peacekeeping missionThe governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia and the UN.LastingArmed conflict has been reduced in the relatively unstable borderlands between Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia and bilateral relations have also improvedhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-cote-divoire-liberia-border/
2002 - PresentGhanaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictPeace infrastructureThe Government of Ghana, the UN Development Programme, and local people and organisationsLastingArmed conflict across Ghana has been reduced by the construction and maintenance of a comprehensive peace infrastructurehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/
2002 - 2019GhanaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMilitary intervention, the mediation of a peace agreement, legal prosecution, and local action.The Government of Ghana and the Committee of Eminent Chiefs.LastingA war between rival claimants to the throne of the Kingdom of Dagbon in Northern Ghana was prevented by a Ghanaian military intervention and the mediation of a peace agreement after sixteen years of talkshttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana-kingdom-of-dagbonauto/
1991 -1994Israel, JordanRisk of an Interstate Conflict. Mediation of a peace agreementThe UN and the governments of Israel, Jordan, and the USA.LastingThe mediation efforts of the Government of USA ended the state of war between Israel and Jordan that had existed for 46 years, greatly reducing the risk of further interstate conflict and stabilising the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-between-israel-and-jordan/
1994 - 2001Papua New GuineaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.A peacekeeping mission, a monitoring mission, and the mediation of a peace agreement. The governments of Pacific states and the UN.LastingThe armed conflict in Bougainville was ended after a decade of fighting by the deployment of a series of regionally led peacekeeping missions and negotiations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-papua-new-guinea-bougainville/
1986 - 2020IndiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement.The Government of IndiaLastingThe armed conflicts in Mizoram, India, were ended after a lengthy negotiation process between armed groups and the Government of India.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-mizoram/
2008GeorgiaInterstate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and a monitoring missionThe EU.LimitedNegotiations hosted by the EU ended the 2008 interstate conflict between Georgia and Russia in five days.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-georgia-and-russia/
1995CroatiaRisk of a Conflict RelapseMediation of a peace agreementThe governments of Russia and the USA, and the EU and UN. LastingThe Contact Group (composed of Russia, EU, USA, and UN) successfully mediated the negotiation of the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, which ended the armed conflict in Croatia during the collapse of Yugoslavia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-croatia/
2011 - PresentSudanHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Local actionPeace Direct and the Collaborative for Peace Sudan.LimitedPeace Committees created with support from the NGO Peace Direct conducted at least 32 successful interventions to prevent relatively minor disputes from escalating into armed conflict in South Kordofan, Sudan.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-sudan-south-kordofan/
2003 - 2014PhilippinesVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement, monitoring missions, and peace infrastructure. The International Contact Group, the Organisation of Islamic Conference, the EU, and the Government of Norway.LastingLengthy negotiations mediated by the International Contact Group (composed of four governments and four NGOS), supported by international monitoring missions and local peace infrastructure, helped to end the armed conflict on Mindanao. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philippines-mindanao-milf/
1991 - PresentSomaliaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictLocal action, the mediation of a peace agreement, and peace infrastructure.Local people and organisations LastingThanks to the efforts of local people and organisations, Somaliland has remained at peace for almost thirty years while much of the rest of Somalia was been plagued by conflict and faminehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-somalia-somaliland/
2005 - PresentIndiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement and stabilising bordersThe Government of IndiaLastingThe level of armed conflict taking place in the complex social and military environment of Manipur has been reduced thanks to a gradual peace process led by the Indian governmenthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-india-manipur/
1999 - 2018Botswana, NamibiaRisk of an Interstate ConflictResolution of a militarised territorial dispute and stabilising international bordersThe International Court of Justice, the African Union, and the Government of ZimbabweLastingThe territorial dispute between Botswana and Namibia, the result of an 1890 treaty between Germany and the UK, was peacefully resolved by the arbitration of the International Court of Justice in 1999 after a series of border clasheshttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-botswana-and-namibia/
2002Democratic Republic of CongoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Interstate Conflict.Diplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, and a peacekeeping mission.The Government of South Africa and the UNLimitedThe Second Congo War (1998-2003) was ended by negotiations hosted by the South African government and the deployment of UN peacekeepershttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo/
2003São Tomé and PríncipeRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementDiplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreementThe governments of Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa, and the USA, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, and the Economic Community of Central African States.LastingConstitutional order was peacefully restored in São Tomé and Príncipe thanks to the mediation efforts of a host of national governments and international organisationshttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-sao-tome-and-principe/
2004 - 2005IndonesiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement.The NGO Crisis Management InitiativeLastingNegotiations mediated by the Crisis Management Initiative resulted in the Helsinki Agreement, which brought an end to the armed conflict in the Indonesian province of Acehhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-aceh/
1991 - 2003Iraq, KuwaitRisk of an Interstate ConflictA peacekeeping missionThe UN.LastingUN peacekeepers helped to prevent further hostilities between Kuwait and Iraq after the First Gulf War.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-between-iraq-and-kuwait/
2001 - PresentKenyaRisk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictPeace InfrastructureThe Government of Kenya, local people and organisationsLastingThe development of an effective peace infrastructure helped to reduce armed conflict across Kenya and limit the risk of electoral violencehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-kenya/
1999 - 2003Democratic Republic of CongoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement; Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Local action and peace infrastructure.Local people and organisationsLimitedThe city of Butembo and its population was spared from much of the fighting that took place across the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1999-2003 thanks to the efforts of local people and organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-butembo/
1990 - PresentIndiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement, local action, diplomacy, and stabilising international borders.The governments of Bangladesh, Bhutan, and IndiaLimitedA gradual peace process has reduced the scale of the armed conflict in Assam while negotiations involving local people and organisations, several layers of the Indian government, and Assamese armed groups are being held.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-assam/
2009 - 2010NigerVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement.The Government of LibyaLastingThe third Tuareg rebellion (2007-2009) in Niger was ended with a peace agreement mediated by the Government of Libya.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-niger-2/
2004GeorgiaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacyThe governments of Georgia and Russia, local people and organisations.LastingThe diplomatic efforts of the Georgian and Russian governments helped prevent a war in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-georgia-adjara/
2018EthiopiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement.The governments of Kenya, Dubai, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, and Conciliation Resources.LastingThe long-running armed conflict in the Somali Region of Ethiopia was ended by a peace agreement mediated with support from Conciliation Resources.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-ethiopia-somali-region/
1992- 1997BangladeshVertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictMediation of a peace agreementThe Government of BangladeshLastingThe Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord brought an end to two decades of armed conflict and formally recognised the special status of the indigenous population. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-bangladesh/
2016 - 2018WithheldHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictLocal action and peace infrastructureLocal people and organisations and the NGO Peace DirectLimitedThe construction of a local peace infrastructure in the country known as “Boendoe” helped to reduce violence in the area and minimised the risk of an armed conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-boendoe/
2002 - 2011Sudan and South SudanVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement; Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement.The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).LimitedThe 50-year conflict between northern and southern Sudan was ended by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which paved the way for South Sudanese independence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-conflict-in-sudan-south-sudan/
2011 - PresentSudan, South SudanRisk of an Interstate ConflictMonitoring mission, a peacekeeping mission, and stabilising borders.The African Union (AU), UN, and the governments of Sudan and South Sudan.LimitedSouth Sudan and Sudan have maintained relatively peaceful relations for a decade thanks to the mechanisms established following the 2011 referendum.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-an-interstate-conflict-between-south-sudan-and-sudan/
2008 - 2009ZimbabweRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Diplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreement. The African Union, Southern African Development Community, and the Government of South Africa.LastingThe diplomatic intervention of the Southern African Development Community and South African President Mbeki helped to avert an armed conflict in Zimbabwe following a contested election in 2008. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-zimbabwe/
2001 - 2002AngolaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvmentMediation of a peace agreementThe Government of AngolaLastingAn agreement negotiated by the belligerents ended the conflict in Angola.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-angola/
2006 - 2009MaliVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreementThe Governments of Algeria and Libya, and local people and organisations. LimitedMediation by the governments of Algeria and Libya helped to establish a framework to end the Third Tuareg Rebellion in Mali, but the conflict itself was ended by talks hosted by local politicians. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mali-kidal-region/
1992 - PresentMolodvaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.A peacekeeping mission.The Joint Control Commission, Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe/Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the European Community/European Union.LimitedThe peacekeeping efforts of the Joint Control Commission and ongoing talks mediated by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe has helped to prevent renewed conflict between the Government of Moldova and the administration of the breakaway republic in Transnistria.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-moldova-transnistria/
1985 - 1991Guinea-Bissau, SenegalRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe Government of France and the International Court of Justice (ICJ)LastingFrench diplomacy helped to prevent border clashes from escalating while the arbitration of the ICJ resolved the territorial dispute between the two countrieshttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-border-dispute-between-guinea-bissau-and-senegal/
2003 - 2018LiberiaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping mission.The African Union, Economic Community of West African States, and UN.LastingA series of peacekeeping operations helped to maintain stability in Liberia for fifteen years following the signing of the Accra Agreement, preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-conflict-relapse-in-liberia/
2004-2019HaitiRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.A peacekeeping missionThe UNLastingThe United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti helped to prevent armed conflict from erupting in Haiti in 2004 after a severe constitutional crisis.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-haiti/
1995 - PresentBosnia and Herzegovina.Risk of a Conflict RelapseLegal prosecutions, a peacekeeping mission, and a monitoring mission The European Community/European Union, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, and the UN.LastingThe legal prosecution of political and military leaders who posed a threat to peace, the deployment of NATO and later EU peacekeepers, and the work of Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and EU advisory and monitoring missions has helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Bosnia and Herzegovina. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina/
2007 - 2011NepalRisk of a Conflict RelapseLocal action and a special political missionLocal people and organisations and the UNLastingThe United Nations Mission in Nepal worked with local people and organisations to ensure that the peace process stayed on track while facilitating the Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration and military integration process, preventing a conflict relapse in Nepalhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-nepal/
2011 - 2012MalawiRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreementThe UN.LastingA timely diplomatic intervention by the UN helped to prevent an ongoing political crisis in Malawi from escalating into armed conflict in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-malawi/
1999KosovoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Military intervention. The North Atlantic Treaty OrganisationLastingA direct military intervention by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ended the armed conflict in Kosovo during the collapse of Yugoslavia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-kosovo/
1986 - PresentPhilippinesVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement and a monitoring mission. The Government of the Philippines. LastingThe peace process between the Government of the Philippines and the Cordillera People's Liberation Army that began in 1986 reached a formal peace agreement in 2011 which continues to be implemented with oversight from a monitoring committee.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-philippines-cordillera/
1996 - 2000Central African RepublicVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionRegional governments and the UNLimitedThe conflict in the Central African Republic was stopped for four years by a diplomatic intervention by regional governments and the deployment of a monitoring mission followed by a UN peacekeeping missionhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-for-four-years/
1992 - 1994South AfricaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Diplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreementThe Government of South Africa (Transitional Executive Council).LastingThe armed conflict between the ANC and Inkatha/IFP in the South African province of Natal during the end of apartheid was endedhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-africa-natal/
2005 - 2012IndonesiaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA monitoring missionThe Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the EU, and the governments of Norway and Switzerland. LastingThe International Monitoring Presence and the Aceh Monitoring Mission helped to prevent a conflict relapse in the Indonesian province of Aceh. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-indonesia-aceh/
2007 - 2008KenyaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictLocal action, diplomacy, and the mediation of a peace agreementConcerned Citizens for Peace (CCP), the African Union, and the UN.LastingElectoral violence in Kenya was prevented from escalating into armed conflict by the efforts of local people and organisations and the African Union’s Panel of Eminent Personalities, which led the talks which produced the National Accord and Reconciliation Acthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-kenya/
1991SloveniaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Risk of an Interstate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and an observation missionThe European CommunityLastingThe mediation efforts of the European Community and the deployment of the European Community Monitoring Mission helped to end the armed conflict in Slovenia after ten days of fighting, preventing a much larger conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-slovenia/
1997AlbaniaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Diplomacy, a peacekeeping mission, and a political mission.The Government of Italy, Multinational Protection Force, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the EULastingThe Multinational Protection Force, an Italian-led peacekeeping mission mandated by the UN to restore order in Albania in 1997, succeeded in ending the armed conflict and restoring stability to Albania following a severe political crisishttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-albania/
1986 - 1990NicaraguaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionThe governments of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua and the UN. LastingA series of peace agreements mediated by regional governments and the deployment of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America helped to end the armed conflict in Nicaragua in 1990. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nicaragua/
1996 - 2004GuatemalaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA verification missionThe EU, Organisation of American States, and the UNLastingThe United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala ensured the ceasefire held and disarmed combatants, in addition to guaranteeing a relatively safe and secure environment for elections to take place alongside EU and Organisation of American States observers, preventing a conflict relapse in Guatemala. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-guatemala/
2012 - 2016ColombiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvmentDiplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreementThe governments of Cuba, Chile, Germany, Norway, USA, Vatican, and Venezuela, along with the EU, UN, and the Union of South American Nations.LastingThe armed conflict in Colombia was finally ended after 52 years by the signing of a peace agreement during negotiations mediated by a host of national governments and intergovernmental organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-colombia/
2011 - 2013Cambodia, ThailandRisk of an Interstate Conflict. Diplomacy, a monitoring mission, and the resolution of a militarised territorial dispute. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).LastingRegional diplomacy led by ASEAN and arbitration by the ICJ resolved the militarised territorial dispute between Cambodia and Thailand which threatened to escalate into a major interstate conflict following border clashes in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-cambodia-and-thailand/
1994 - 1996GuatemalaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvmentMediation of a peace agreementThe UNLastingNegotiations mediated by the UN resulted in the signing of the Accord for a Firm and Lasting Peace in 1996, ending the armed conflict in Guatemala after 36 years. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-guatemala/
2010KyrgyzstanHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Local action and diplomacy.Local people and organisations and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. LastingThe measures taken by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and Kyrgyzstani people and organisations helped to prevent political crises and social unrest from escalating into armed conflict in 2010.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kyrgyzstan/
2003Democratic Republic of CongoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementA peacekeeping missionThe EU and UNLimitedOperation Artemis prevented a much larger conflict which could have contributed to a major famine from happening in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2003https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-widespread-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-ituri/
1989 - 1994SurinameVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and a monitoring missionThe Organisation of American StatesLastingThe mediation of a peace agreement and the deployment of a monitoring mission to verify implementation of its terms by the Organisation of American States ended the armed conflict in Suriname.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-suriname/
2017 - PresentMali, Niger, Burkina FasoHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and stabilising international bordersThe Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the governments of Burkina Faso, Mali, and NigerLimitedThe Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue has worked with the governments of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to reduce armed conflict in the frontier region where their respective international borders meethttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-mali-niger-burkina-faso-international-border/
2009 - 2014MadagascarRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Diplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreementThe African Union, l'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Southern African Development Community, and the UNLastingA political crisis which verged on the brink of sparking a civil war in Madagascar was prevented from escalating by an effective international diplomatic intervention and the mediation of a peace agreement by the Southern African Development Community.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-madagascar/
1994 – Present.Azerbaijan (de jure)Interstate ConflictDiplomacyThe Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe/Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Minsk Group, and the Government of RussiaLimitedThe armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a territory claimed by both Armenia and Azerbaijan, has been contained since 1994 by the ongoing diplomatic efforts of the Minsk Group, preventing the eruption of a much larger confrontationhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-nagorno-karabakh/
2013 - 2018MozambiqueRisk of a Conflict RelapseMediation of a peace agreement, local action, and a monitoring mission.The Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, the Government of Switzerland, and local people and organisations.LastingTalks mediated by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Government of Switzerland helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Mozambique more than two decades after the devastating civil war there had ended.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-mozambique-2013-2018/
1989 - 1992MozambiqueVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreementThe Community of Sant’Egidio and the Government of Italy.LastingNegotiations hosted by the Community of Sant’Egidio in Rome concluded with the signing of the General Peace Agreement, which ended the armed conflict in Mozambique after three decades of near-continuous war.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mozambique/
1993 - 1997EstoniaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementDiplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, and a monitoring missionThe Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe/Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.LastingA diplomatic intervention led by the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe helped to avert an armed conflict in Estonia following the collapse of the Soviet Union.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-estonia/
1992 - 2008GeorgiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreement, a monitoring mission, and a peacekeeping mission.The governments of Russia, Georgia, and South Ossetia.LimitedThe armed conflict in South Ossetia was contained between 1992 and 2008 by the deployment of a regional peacekeeping mission.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-georgia-south-ossetia-for-16-years/
2012 - PresentSenegalVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreementThe Community of Sant’Egidio and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.LimitedAlthough a final settlement to the conflict is yet to be negotiated, ongoing negotiations hosted by organisations such as the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Community of Sant’Egidio have helped to strengthen a 2014 ceasefire and end the fighting in the Casamance region of Senegal.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-senegal-casamance/
2017 - 2019Burundi, TanzaniaRisk of Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate ConflictStabilising bordersThe UNLimitedThe UN has helped to manage conflict and instability along the international border between Burundi and Tanzania, reducing the likelihood of armed conflict between communities and minimising the risk of an interstate conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-conflict-and-building-stability-on-the-burundi-tanzania-border/
2018 - 2020South SudanRisk of a Conflict RelapseMonitoring missions and the mediation of a peace agreementThe Intergovernmental Authority on DevelopmentLastingThe IGAD has successfully prevented a conflict relapse in South Sudan by employing a range of monitoring mechanisms and facilitating ongoing dialogue between former belligerents.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-south-sudan/
1995 - 1998Ecuador, PeruRisk of an Interstate ConflictAn observation mission, diplomacy, and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe Military Observer Mission for Ecuador and Peru and the Guarantors of the Rio de Janeiro ProtocolLastingA return to armed conflict on the volatile border was prevented and the territorial dispute that had caused so many wars over the centuries was resolvedhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-ecuador-and-peru/
1992RussiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMilitary interventionThe Government of RussiaLimitedThe deployment of Russian forces ended the fighting in East Prigorodny after six days.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-russia-east-prigorodny/
2012 - 2020Guinea-BissauRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacy, a peacekeeping mission, and the mediation of a peace agreementThe Economic Community of West African States, EU, UN, and the Government of GuineaLastingA diplomatic intervention led by Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the deployment of the ECOWAS Mission in Guinea-Bissau helped to prevent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau in 2012https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guinea-bissau/
1991 - 2008China, RussiaRisk of an Interstate ConflictStabilising borders and resolving a militarised territorial disputeThe governments of China and RussiaLastingThe long-standing border dispute between China and Russia (which almost sparked a war in the 1960s) was resolved, dramatically reducing the chance of an interstate conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-china-and-russia-soviet-union/
2000 - 2006BurundiVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and a peacekeeping missionThe Government of South Africa, the UN, and the Organisation of African Unity/African Union.LastingInternational mediation efforts led by South African President Nelson Mandela and the deployment of African Union and UN peacekeepers helped to end the war in Burundi after 13 years of armed conflict. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-burundi/
2000 - 2009RussiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.DiplomacyThe Government of RussiaLimitedThe diplomatic manoeuvrings of the Government of Russia ended the war in Chechnya after a decade of conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-russia-chechnya/
2003LiberiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreement. The Economic Community of West African States and the International Contact Group on Liberia.LastingAfter 14 years of armed conflict and instability, the war in Liberia was finally ended by the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 18 August 2003.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-liberia/
2016 - 2017Republic of CongoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement.The Government of Republic of CongoLastingThe ceasefire and cessation of hostilities agreements ended the Ninja insurgency in the Pool region, while a comprehensive Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration programme has helped to stabilise the area.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-republic-of-congo/
1964 - PresentCyprusRisk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate Conflict.A peacekeeping missionThe UN.LimitedThe United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus has worked to keep the peace between the Turkish-held north and the rest of Cyprus since 1964.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-on-cyprus/
1993 - 1999North MacedoniaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementDiplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, and a peacekeeping mission.The Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe/ Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, EU, and the UNLastingA timely diplomatic intervention by a range of international organisations and the deployment of a preventive peacekeeping mission helped the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to avoid armed conflict during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990shttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-fyr-macedonia/
1998 - 2002UgandaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreement.Local people and organisations supported by donors.LastingThe ongoing insurgency in northern Uganda was ended with a peace agreementhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-uganda-west-nile/
1990 - 1996MaliVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreementThe Government of Algeria and local people and organisations. LimitedMediation by the Government of Algeria resulted in a ceasefire, allowing local people and organisations in Mali to participate in a peace process which ended the Second Tuareg Rebellion in the early 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mali-second-tuareg-rebellion/
2001 - 2002IndonesiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Military intervention and the mediation a peace agreementThe Government of IndonesiaLastingThe intercommunal violence in Central Sulawesi was ended by an Indonesian military deployment and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-central-sulawesi/
1999 - 20001Solomon IslandsRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Diplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, a monitoring mission, and peace infrastructure.The Commonwealth and the governments of Australia and New Zealand.LastingNegotiations facilitated by the Commonwealth and the Government of Australia combined with the deployment of an international monitoring mission and the creation of a peace infrastructure to prevent intercommunal violence from escalating into war in Solomon Islands in 2000.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-solomon-islands/
2011 - PresentMaliHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and local actionThe Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and local people and organisationsLimitedThe Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue has facilitated a series of successful peace processes between communities in Mali, helping them to negotiate peace agreements and build mechanisms to prevent further conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-mali/
1998 - PresentSomaliaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Conflict RelapseLocal action and peace infrastructure.Local people and organisationsLimitedPuntland has enjoyed relative peace while conflict has continued across most of Somalia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-in-somalia-puntland/
1992 - 2001Qatar, Saudi ArabiaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe Government of EgyptLastingThe territorial dispute between Qatar and Saudi was resolved, preventing an interstate conflict from erupting over the contested territoryhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-qatar-and-saudi-arabia/
1999 - PresentKosovoRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping mission, a political mission, and a transitional international administration. The EU, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, and the UN. LastingA North Atlantic Treaty Organisation peacekeeping force, a UN transitional administration, and a political mission from the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe have successfully helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Kosovo since 1999. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kosovo/
2014 - 2017Ethiopia, KenyaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of Interstate ConflictLocal action, the mediation of a peace agreement, and stabilising bordersLocal people and organisationsLimitedThe 2005-2009 conflict between the Gabra and Borana communities on the Ethiopia/Kenya border was ended, stabilising the frontier, and reducing the likelihood of further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-communities-in-ethiopia-and-kenya/
1953 - 1955North Korea, South KoreaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and a monitoring missionThe Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the Military Armistice CommitteeLimitedThe Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the Military Armistice Committee helped to contain the armed conflict between North and South Korea for over four decades, playing a key role in implementing the terms of the 1953 Armistice and monitoring adherence to them by both signatories.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-on-the-korean-peninsula/
1985 - PresentIndiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement, Risk of a Conflict Relapse.Mediation of a peace agreement, diplomacy, an observation mission, and stabilising international bordersThe governments of Bangladesh and IndiaLimitedAn ongoing peace process effectively contained the armed conflict in Nagaland for 14 years until a more comprehensive settlement was reached in 2015.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-nagaland/
2007 - 2017Côte d’IvoireVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementA series of peacekeeping missions and a military interventionThe African Union, Economic Community of West African States, UN, and the Government of FranceLastingA series of international peacekeeping missions helped to contain the conflict in Côte d'Ivoire until a French/UN 2011 military intervention definitively ended the conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-cote-divoire/
1994 -1997NicaraguaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreement and a verification missionThe Organisation of American States and the UN via the International Support and Verification Commission.LastingThe Frente Norte 3-80 insurgency was ended in Nicaragua by a peace agreement and its personnel were disarmed.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nicaragua-fn-3-80/
1996 - 2002CroatiaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping mission, a monitoring mission, and a transitional international administration.The UN and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.LastingThe United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation, United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka, and United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Croatia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-croatia/
2016 - PresentNigeriaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictPeace InfrastructureNigerian state-level governments with donor supportLimitedThe development of a peace infrastructure across the Middle Belt of Nigeria has helped to reduce armed conflict and prevent electoral violence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-nigeria-middle-belt/
1993 - PresentIndiaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.Mediation of a peace agreement, diplomacy, and stabilising international borders.The governments of Bangladesh and IndiaLimitedThe armed conflict in Tripura between the Indian government and Tripuri armed groups was ended by a series of negotiated settlements with several armed opposition groups and the stabilisation of the international border.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-tripura/
1993SomaliaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict; Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreementLocal people and organisationsLimitedThe peace agreement ended the fighting in the central province of Mudug, reducing armed conflict in the area and allowing supplies to cross Somalia, mitigating the impact of other conflictshttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-somalia-mudug/
1994 - 1999Republic of CongoVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementDiplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreement. The Government of GabonLimitedA series of peace agreements mediated by the Government of Gabon brought an end to the armed conflict that engulfed the Republic of Congo during the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-republic-of-congo/
1989 - 1995El SalvadorRisk of a Conflict RelapseAn observer mission and a political missionThe UN.LastingThe United Nations Observer Group in El Salvador and the United Nations Mission in El Salvador verified the implementation of a ceasefire, contributed to stabilising the country, and strengthened the fragile institutions, preventing a conflict relapse in El Salvadorhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-el-salvador/
1999 - 2000Timor-LesteHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.A military intervention. The governments of Pacific states and the UN.LastingA multilateral military intervention led by Australia brought an end to the armed conflict in Timor-Leste in 2000 after decades of instability and war. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-timor-leste/
1994 - 1995Bosnia and HerzegovinaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvmentMediation of a peace agreementThe Government of the USALastingThe Government of the USA successfully mediated a series of peace agreements which ended the multifaceted armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina/
1991-1993CambodiaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping mission and a transitional international administrationThe UN.LastingThe United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia maintained peace and stability in post-conflict Cambodia until a national government was formed in 1993.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-cambodia/
1987 - 1991CambodiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign InvolvementMediation of a peace agreementThe UN and the governments of France, Thailand, and Indonesia.LastingAn October 1991 peace agreement formally ended the armed conflict in Cambodia after decades of devastation, war, and genocide.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-armed-conflict-in-cambodia/
2014 - 2018Costa Rica, NicaraguaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe Organisation of American States and the International Court of JusticeLastingA diplomatic intervention by the Organisation of American States prevented an armed conflict between Costa Rica and Nicaragua from erupting in 2010 and the International Court of Justice peacefully resolved the dispute in 2018https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-costa-rica-and-nicaragua/
1989 - 1990NamibiaRisk of a Conflict Relapse, Risk of an Interstate ConflictA peacekeeping mission and an international transitional administration.The UN.LastingThe United Nations Transition Assistance Group helped to ensure that the withdrawal of South African troops and broader post-conflict transition of the newly independent Namibian state was peaceful.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-and-building-stability-in-namibia/
1991 - 2000RussiaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictLocal ActionLocal people and organisationsLastingTraditional methods of political organisation have helped prevent armed conflict in the Republic of Dagestan during the unrest and instability that has marked life in much of the Caucasus in the post-Soviet period.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-russia-dagestan/
2001 - 2005(de jure) Papua New GuineaRisk of a Conflict RelapseA peacekeeping missionThe governments of Pacific states and the UNLastingA series of international peacekeeping missions helped to ensure Bougainville did not relapse into conflict and created a stable and secure environment for the new administration to govern the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-papua-new-guinea-bougainville/
2007Ethiopia, SomaliaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of an Interstate Conflict. Local action, the mediation of a peace agreement, and stabilising bordersThe UN and the governments of Portugal, USA, and USSR.LastingThe Government of Puntland ended the pervasive armed conflict on the Ethiopia/Somalia border, minimising the risk of an interstate conflict in futurehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-somalia-border/
1995 - 1999IraqHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreementThe Government of the USALastingThe Washington Agreement ended a four-year armed conflict between the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan in Iraqi Kurdistan during the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-kurdish-civil-war-in-iraq/
2002 - 2013Liberia & Sierra LeoneRisk of a Conflict RelapseLegal prosecution.The governments of Sierra Leone and Liberia and the UN.LastingBy removing powerful figures with a history of employing violence and armed conflict from the political environment, establishing a historical record of events leading up to and during the war, and bringing the perpetrators of war crimes to justice, a series of transitional justice mechanisms helped to prevent a conflict relapse in West Africa.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-west-africa-with-legal-prosecutions/
2015NigeriaRisk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict, Risk of Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacy, mediation of a peace agreement, and peace infrastructureThe Government of Nigeria, the National Peace Committee, and the UNLastingThe National Peace Committee helped to guide Nigeria through its first peaceful elections in history amidst a tense a political climate, preventing an armed conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-nigeria/
2008 - 2010GuineaRisk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate ConflictDiplomacy and the mediation of a peace agreementThe African Union, Economic Community of West African States, and the UN.LastingThanks to timely diplomatic action by the African Union, Economic Community of West African States, and the UN, a violent political crisis in Guinea was prevented from escalating into armed conflict in 2009https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guinea/
2016NigeriaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMediation of a peace agreement and peace infrastructureLocal people and organisations and the Centre for Humanitarian DialogueLimitedLocal people and organisations and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue developed a peace declaration that ended the ongoing low-intensity armed conflicts between 56 communities in southern Plateau State, Nigeriahttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-southern-plateau-state/
1993 - 2020IndiaVertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict, Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict.Mediation of a peace agreement, diplomacy, and stabilising international borders. The governments of Bangladesh, Bhutan, and India and the Assam regional administration.LastingThe armed conflict between Bodo armed groups and Indian security services in Assam was finally ended in 2020 after several attempts to find a negotiated settlement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-bodoland/
1999 - 2007Honduras, NicaraguaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy, an observer mission, and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe Organisation of American States and the International Court of JusticeLastingThe Organisation of American States helped to prevent a territorial dispute between Honduras and Nicaragua from escalating into armed conflict while the International Court of Justice investigated the case and resolved the dispute peacefullyhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-honduras-and-nicaragua/
2013 - 2020NigeriaHorizontal (non-state) Intrastate ConflictMilitary intervention, peace infrastructure and the mediation of a peace agreement.The Government of Nigeria and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.LastingA military intervention by the Nigerian military helped to contain intercommunal violence in Plateau State until the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue mediated a peace agreement which ended the fighting and helped create a peace infrastructure to continue its work and prevent a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-plateau-state/
2018Djibouti, EritreaRisk of an Interstate ConflictDiplomacy, the mediation of a peace agreement, stabilising borders, and the resolution of a militarised territorial disputeThe African Union, UN, and the Government of Saudi ArabiaLastingThe militarised territorial dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea was prevented from escalating in 2017 by the timely diplomatic intervention of the African Union and was ultimately resolved after the Government of Saudi Arabia mediated a peace agreementhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-djibouti-and-eritrea/
1949 - PresentKashmirRisk of an Interstate Conflict. Diplomacy and a peacekeeping mission.The UN and the Government of the Soviet Union.LimitedThe United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has helped to prevent a major interstate war between India and Pakistan in Kashmir since 1949.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-kashmir/
1993 - PresentKenyaRisk of a Conflict RelapsePeace infrastructureLocal people and organisations, the Wajir Peace and Development Committee, the Government of KenyaLastingConflict relapses in Wajir County were prevented and armed conflict in the area has been significantly reduced thanks to the maintenance of a peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kenya-wajir/