Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict On The Korean Peninsula
Year(s): 1953 – 1995.
Location: North Korea/South Korea International Border.
UN Regional Group: Asia-Pacific.
Type of Conflict: Risk of an Interstate Conflict.
Type of Initiative: Diplomacy and a monitoring mission.
Main Implementing Organisation(s): The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the Military Armistice Committee.
Summary: The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the Military Armistice Committee helped to contain the armed conflict between North and South Korea for over four decades, playing a key role in implementing the terms of the 1953 Armistice and monitoring adherence to them by both signatories.
Description of Case
After over three years of intense fighting, the Korean War came to an unofficial end on 27 July 1953 with the signing of the Agreement Concerning a Military Armistice in Korea. The Agreement stipulated the withdrawal of military forces from a demilitarised zone which was created as a buffer between North and South, dividing the peninsula in two. Although it ended the fighting and serves as the only legal instrument for the avoidance of renewed hostilities, the Agreement did not provide a resolution to the conflict. It did, however, establish the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), an unarmed military observer mission, and the Military Armistice Committee (MAC), a ten-person committee of military personnel, to verify implementation and provide a mechanism for dialogue across the lines should the need arise. Owing to the high levels of international involvement in the conflict, the NNSC was composed of four theoretically neutral nations selected by the belligerents: Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. The MAC includes five representatives selected by the North and five from the South.
Between 1953 and 1956, hundreds of NNSC personnel verified compliance with the ceasefire and the demilitarised zone, monitored the rotation of units along the front line (passing such information to both sides as a confidence building measure), and inspected freight at ports of entry across the peninsula for arms shipments. These activities helped to reduce tensions and lower the risk of armed conflict in the years immediately after the conflict. In 1956, inspection responsibilities were removed from the NNSC’s mandate, and the Commission was significantly reduced in size. Between 1953 and 1991, full meetings of the MAC were convened 459 times, while thousands more occurred among the lower ranks. These regular meetings helped to maintain dialogue between the belligerents and served as a mechanism for disputes to be discussed and resolved peacefully. The transition of Czechoslovakia and Poland from communism at the end of the Cold War led North Korea to dismiss them as its representatives on the NNSC, forcing it to suspend most of its activities in February 1995. A small team has remained to gather and exchange intelligence, while meetings are occasionally held between the NNSC states. The MAC continues to operate.
 Agreement Concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, 1953. Available at: https://peacemaker.un.org/koreadprk-militaryarmistice53 (Accessed 03/12/2020)
 Marek Hańderek. Documents Concerning the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. (North Korean Archives Project, 2020) Available at: https://northkoreanarchives.org/2018/12/05/documents-concerning-the-neutral-nations-supervisory-commission-in-korea-in-the-archive-of-the-institute-of-national-remembrance/# (Accessed 03/12/2020)
 Ray Smith. Peacekeeping Without the Secretary-General: The Korean Armistice Arrangements. (Thesis presented in partial completion of the requirements of The Certificate-of-Training in United Nations Peace Support Operations, 2015) p.12
 Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. “2019 Joint Statement by Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission Member State.” Regeringskansliet. (2019) Available at: https://www.regeringen.se/uttalanden/2019/03/2019-joint-statement-by-neutral-nations-supervisory-commission-member-states/ (Accessed 03/12/2020)