Testing Automatic Tables per Keyword

This table contains the entire repository of data and resources that the Better Evidence Project has collected and curated on “Citizen Action”. To find resources you are interested in, simply use the search box on the top right of the table and search based on any parameters that you are interested in: Country name, Keywords, Type of Resource, Authors, etc. The table will automatically populate as you search.  You can expand the number of entries you’d like to see by toggling the show entries box (top left of the table) and selecting the number you’d like to see.

To help narrow your search by keywords, please refer to this post that features a running list of keywords in use in the repository.

Resource Library

Navigate through our resource library, search for the terms you are interested in and the table will populate automatically with matching results.
TitleAuthorsSubject KeywordsAbstractLinkCountry Name
Preventing Armed Conflict in GhanaElliot ShortElections, Citizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking InitiativesGhanaian people and organisations worked alongside the government and security services to ensure that the 2008 elections did not spark an armed conflict in Ghana.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/Ghana
Early Warning / Early Response Mechanisms in Northern NigeriaHoracio R. TrujilloEarly Warning, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E), Citizen ActionThis report presents the summative findings of the quasi-experimental evaluation of SFCG’s project to strengthen mechanisms for Early Warning and Early Response in the Nigerian states of Adamawa and Borno. The project encompassed a number of SFCG initiatives to convene and train community leaders to engage in dialogue processes at the local and state levels (Community Security Architecture Dialogues (CSADs) and Peace Architecture Dialogues (PADs), respectively) in order to promote increased collaboration among community members, civil society organizations and government agencies and improved capacity of and greater confidence in governmental and nongovernmental security structures in insecure areas. The aspiration of the project was to allow these communities to benefit from early warning of and early response to potential violence in order to effectively mitigate these threats.
Among the most notable effects of the project, which developed later in its implementation but nonetheless demonstrates significant sustainability, is the advancement of the role of women in these societies more broadly.
Among the lessons to be learned from the project and accompanying recommendations, a primary one is that while this evaluation has been able to collect various evidence to suggest that the project has been effective – the assessment of similar projects can be much stronger if attention is given to evaluation at the time of design of the projects
Local infrastructures for peace in Guinea-Bissau: The contribution of the Regional Spaces for Dialogue to peacebuildingInter-PeaceCommunications: Public Relations, dialogue, citizen action In 2007, Interpeace and its partner, the national NGO, Voz di Paz (Voice of Peace), established 10 permanent dialogue groups all over the country. By assisting the population in conflict management, these Regional Spaces for Dialogue (RSDs) made a critical contribution to peacebuilding in Guinea-Bissau. Since 2011, they have resolved more than 200 local conflicts by using dialogue as a tool for the peaceful management of conflict related to insecurity, bad governance, religion and violence against women, among other issues. This power to convene such gatherings can be explained by the respect and legitimacy conferred on the local personalities who constitute these RSDs. While rooted in local realities, at the same time, the RSDs represent a community of craftspeople of peace at the national level. Their members have a sense of full ownership of their mission and RSDs objectives. Together, they pursue their engagement with dedication and demonstrate their determination to support, in the long term, their country’s journey to stability and non-violence. https://www.interpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/2015_11_25_Local_Infrastructures_for_Peace_in_Guinea-Bissau.pdfGuinea-Bissau
Creating the Political Space for Prevention: How ECOWAS Supports Nationally Led StrategiesPaige Arthur, Céline MonnierMonitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Early Warning, Citizen action
In discussions on the prevention agenda at the United Nations, member states express reservations about potential infringement upon their sovereignty. Some are concerned about an approach to prevention that entails an assessment of their vulnerabilities and risks for violent conflict. This policy brief looks at how ECOWAS has addressed similar sensitivities with its member states in West Africa and is successfully accompanying them to build nationally led, upstream prevention strategies.https://cic.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/regional_organization_final_august_29_pdf.pdfWest Africa
Localising protection responses in conflicts: challenges and opportunities Victoria Metcalfe-Hough Citizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Violence Prevention
In conflict situations around the world, civilians are providing their own frontline ‘protection services’, adopting a variety of strategies and utilising various capacities and capabilities to try to prevent and mitigate the impact of conflict-related violence and abuse, and repair the damage done to their lives and livelihoods. On the ground, however, international humanitarian organisations are still failing to fully understand and systematically integrate these local and self-protection efforts in their own response strategies. This report considers in detail the role of local populations in their own protection; the role of local non-state actors in enhancing those efforts; and the relationship between these and the strategies adopted by international ‘humanitarian protection’ actors. The paper further seeks to explore the tensions, challenges and opportunities inherent in a more localised approach to protection. https://odi.org/en/publications/localising-protection-responses-in-conflicts-challenges-and-opportunities/Worldwide
Preventing Armed Conflict In Burkina FasoElliot ShortCitizen Action, Governance: Transition, MediationPreventive diplomacy by the African Union and locally led mediation efforts helped to prevent a war in Burkina Faso following a military coup d’état.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-burkina-faso/Burkina Faso
Preventing Armed Conflict In TunisiaElliot ShortCitizen Action, Governance: Constitutions, MediationThe National Dialogue Quartet, a consortium of four major Tunisian civil society organisations, helped to prevent armed conflict and guide their country on a peaceful course in the wake of the 2011 Jasmine Revolution.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-tunisia/Tunisia
Engaging Civil Society Organizations in Conflict-Affected and Fragile States : Three African Country Case StudiesWorld Bank Citizen action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E)
Civil society organizations (CSOs) play a prominent role in conflict-affected and fragile states. In the absence of capable or credible public institutions due to conflict or weak policy environments, CSOs tend to substitute for public institutions and become primary providers of basic social services. At the same time, the international donor community has increased its involvement in countries affected by conflict and instability, often relying increasingly on CSOs to reach the poor. While the prominent role of CSOs in social service delivery and other development activities is often seen as an interim solution, it may extend for years, even decades. Recognizing that reliance on CSOs is likely to prevail for the foreseeable future in many countries, there is a need to consider how to make CSO engagement more effective and sustainable. The objective of this report is to identify approaches to more effectively engage CSOs in the context of weak public institutions in conflict-affected and fragile states. The report will: 1) Examine the roles, strengths, and weaknesses of CSOs in terms of service delivery, community development, advocacy, peace building, and governance; 2) Identify the factors that influence CSO effectiveness in performing these functions; 3) Assess donor influence on CSOs and their indirect influence on governance by supporting CSOs; and 4) Discuss the relationship between CSOs and government including their changing roles, weak communication, and government efforts to coordinate and regulate CSO activity. Key findings are presented from pilots of the Civil Society Assessment Tool (CSAT) in Angola, Guinea Bissau, and Togo. The pilots were conducted from January 2004 to February 2005. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12772Africa
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Ethiopia-Kenya BorderElliot ShortCitizen Action, Early Warning, Monitoring/Verification: LocalArmed conflict between communities living near the Ethiopia-Kenya border was reduced and the risk of interstate conflict was significantly reduced. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-kenya-border/Ethiopia, Kenya
Reflecting on the Role of Regional and International Interventions in Resolving the Post-coup Crisis in SudanClayton Hazvinei VhumbunuCitizen Action, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Governance: Transitition
A coup brought to Sudan a change of power after the 30-year governance of the former president Al-Bashir, which was followed by a crisis as there was no effective transitional governance. Following these lines, regional and international interventions influenced Sudan in its post-coup crisis, creating a pathway towards a more stable transition and settlement. External actors -- some regional and international institutions -- have had implications in African conflicts. Taking into account the accomplishments and limitation, the role of regional and international actors were key to addressing conflict and tensions in Sudan and the subregion. The transitional governance in Sudan provides an example of enhanced sustainability and broader involvement by external influences on the continent. This article focuses on the main influential external actors, which include the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Ethiopia (under the Ethiopian Initiative), the African Union Commission (AUC), the Arab League, the Sudan Troika (of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Norway) and the United Nations (UN). Coordinated interventions such as this one — leading to civilian-led government and stability — provide insights towards the role of external institutions upon peace and stability in the continent, which are worth reflecting on and considering for further action. https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/reflecting-on-the-role-of-regional-and-international-interventions-in-resolving-the-post-coup-crisis-in-sudan/Sudan
Transitional Justice: What Do the People Want? Views from the ground in Guatemala, Nepal, and Northern IrelandKarin Dyrstad, Helga Malmin Binningsbø, Thandeka Brigham, Kristin M. BakkeHuman Rights: Transitional Justice, Rule of Law, Citizen action​The Guatemalan peace process from 1990 to 1996 represents an early example of the inclusion of civil society in a negotiation process. However, once included, what role could civil society play – and in this case what role was it allowed to play? Clearly, civil society had an influence on the negotiations between the government and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG), but on some sensitive and critical issues civil society was prevented from exerting pressure on the parties. This case brief looks at the ethical implications of this situation.
Civil Society in Conflict Transformation: Strengths and Limitations Martina FischerCitizen action, Statebuilding, Humanitarian EngagementThis book chapter focuses on the potential contribution that civil society actors can make to peacebuilding. There is also an examination of what types of activities international and transnational NGOs undertake in order to influence international politics in a way that contributes to coping with global challenges. The author explores key questions such as: What are the strengths and limitations of civil society actors? What types of activities do NGOs undertake? What problems and dilemmas are faced in the development of civil society in war-torn societies? What is the role and potential of (local) civil society actors in war-to-peace transitions and what problems and dilemmas stem from the development of civil society in war-torn societies? She uses the example of Bosnia-Herzegovina to explore the limitations of civil society's contributions to peacebuilding, and how civil society relates to state-building. Finally, the chapter addresses how such considerations impact theoretical conceptualizations of the term "civil society". http://hdl.handle.net/1920/12903Bosnia and Herzegovina
Assessing Progress on the Road to Peace: Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating Conflict PreventionGoele ScheersDesign, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E), Conflict Prevention, Citizen ActionThis paper evolved out of the experiences of GPPAC in setting up a planning, monitoring and evaluation system. During this process, discussions about monitoring and evaluation took place within the network. These discussions revealed that many of the civil society organisations are facing challenges in monitoring and evaluating conflict prevention activities; most of them are still looking for effective tools and methods to assess the results of their work.https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/AssessingProgressontheRoadtoPeace_ECCP2008.pdfWorldwide
Opening the Black Box : The Contextual Drivers of Social AccountabilityGrandvoinnet, Helene & Aslam, Ghazia and Raha, ShomikhoCitizen ActionThis publication fills an important knowledge gap by providing guidance on how to assess contextual drivers of social accountability effectiveness. It aims to strategically support citizen engagement at the country level and for a specific issue or problem. The report proposes a novel framing of social accountability as the interplay of constitutive elements: citizen action and state action, supported by three enabling levers: civic mobilization, interface and information. For each of these constitutive elements, the report identifies 'drivers' of contextual effectiveness which take into account a broad range of contextual factors (e.g., social, political and intervention-based, including information and communication technologies). Opening the Black Box offers detailed guidance on how to assess each driver. It also applies the framework at two levels. At the country level, the report looks at 'archetypes' of challenging country contexts, such as regimes with no formal space or full support for citizen-state engagement and fragile and conflict-affected situations. The report also illustrates the use of the framework to analyze specific social accountability interventions through four case studies: Sierra Leone, Pakistan, Yemen, and the Kyrgyz Republic. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12771Worldwide
The Handbook of Conflict PreventionIgarapé Institute Conflict Prevention, Citizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
This handbook seeks to build more clarity to conflict prevention concepts and practice. Based on extensive consultations at the UN and the AU and with support from Global Affairs (Canada), it offers a working definition and a typology of innovative preventive approaches. In setting out a standard nomenclature, the goal is to help improve knowledge sharing across Africa in particular. At the same time, the handbook is designed to provide policy makers and practitioners with insights and ideas for prioritizing, designing, implementing and evaluating conflict prevention. https://igarape.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/The-Handbook-of-Conflict-Prevention.pdfWorldwide
Middle East and North Africa Local Service Delivery Initiative : Promoting Social Accountability and Demand for Good GovernanceBeddies, Sabine; Felicio, Mariana; Dedu, Gabriel; Fall, Fatou; Vagneron, Caroline governance,citizen action, rule of lawGood governance is an underlying condition for the formulation of effective and efficient public policies, programs, and services. It implies a social contract and adherence to rules and laws that enable improved interaction between government and constituents on transparency, accountability, and participation. Good governance is equitable and inclusive, responsive and consensus-oriented. Governance reforms rank high on the development agenda of many Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, particularly in regard to public service delivery. Social accountability approaches aim to improve the performance of public services, user satisfaction, and value for money. This note highlights lessons learned thus far from the four Local Service Delivery Initiative (LDSI) pilot programs. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12776Middle East
Reducing Armed Conflict Across KenyaElliot ShortCitizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Peace AgreementThe development of an effective peace infrastructure helped to reduce armed conflict across Kenya and limit the risk of electoral violence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-kenya/Kenya
Reducing Armed Conflict In GhanaElliot ShortMediation, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen ActionArmed conflict across Ghana has been reduced by the construction and maintenance of a comprehensive peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/Ghana
Building Just Societies: Reconciliation in Transitional SettingsEnrique Sánchez and Sylvia RognvikReconciliation, Citizen Action, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E)
Reconciliation is a key objective in building sustainable peace and preventing a relapse into conflict. It is about (re) building relationships among people and groups in society and between the state and its citizens. The process is highly context sensitive, and each society has to tailor its approach to the nature of the conflict and the character of the transition. The reconciliation workshop held in Accra, Ghana in June 2012 gathered practitioners and experts from past and current reconciliation processes to share experiences in a practitioner dialogue and to inform future strategies and actions on reconciliation. It was a collaboration between the UN Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO), the Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre (NOREF) and the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC), and focused on lessons learned and good practices in thematic areas within reconciliation such as healing; the relation- ship between truth, justice and reconciliation; reparation; reconciliation efforts at different levels and how they are connected to one another; and the role of the international community.https://www.un.org/peacebuilding/sites/www.un.org.peacebuilding/files/documents/12-58492_feb13.pdfGhana
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Kenya (Wajir)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen action, Dialogue,
Conflict relapses in Wajir County were prevented and armed conflict in the area has been significantly reduced thanks to the maintenance of a peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kenya-wajir/Kenya
‘Capacities for Peace’: lessons from the Ivorian-Liberian border regionJanet Adama MohammedLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Inclusive Peacebuilding, Citizen action
Between September 2013 and February 2016, Conciliation Resources and Saferworld implemented the ‘Capacities for Peace’ project in 32 conflict-affected contexts around the world. The project involved working with local actors to enhance the effectiveness of local analysis, early warning and early action. This report seeks to reflect on the experiences and achievements of the ‘Capacities for Peace’ work that was implemented in the Ivorian-Liberian border regions.
The project sought to strengthen local ownership of peace initiatives in the Ivorian-Liberian border region by supporting the empowerment and capacity building of community-based peacebuilding actors. These actors were mobilised into District Platforms for Dialogue (DPDs) working to promote dialogue as an effective and non-violent means of redress. In total, four new DPDs were formed; Danané and Toulépléu in Côte d’Ivoire and Loguatou and Toetown in Liberia.
The project provided the space and linkages for the DPDs and the wider border population to engage more effectively with local and national authorities. The DPDs were supported to undertake participatory research into the drivers of insecurities in their communities, which they used to sensitise duty bearers. The collaborative and non-accusatory engagement approach that they used ensured that duty bearers were largely receptive and responsive to the findings. These engagements created an appetite amongst government officials from both countries to participate in a bilateral dialogue process.
https://www.c-r.org/resource/capacities-peace-lessons-ivorian-liberian-border-regionSierra Leone, Liberia
Preventing Armed Conflict In KenyaElliot ShortReconciliation, Elections, Citizen ActionElectoral violence in Kenya was prevented from escalating into armed conflict by the efforts of local people and organisations and the African Union’s Panel of Eminent Personalities, which led the talks which produced the National Accord and Reconciliation Acthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-kenya/Kenya
The Missing Link : Fostering Positive Citizen-State Relations in Post-Conflict Environmentsvon Kaltenborn-Stachau, Henriette.Governance: Reforms, Inclusive Peacebuilding, Citizen ActionThe aim of this study is to convince national and multilateral policy makers of the importance of the public sphere concept for democratic governance and strategic post-conflict assistance planning with the objective of positive and sustainable change in current post-conflict assistance policy and practice. The study introduces the conceptual thinking underlying the public sphere framework and, citing evidence from different countries, highlights its relevance and calls for its application in post-conflict environments. For practitioners the study provides a public sphere assessment toolkit and a toolbox for interventions. It also offers concrete examples and recommendations on how to address the specific governance challenges identified through a public sphere analysis in three countries: Timor-Leste, Liberia and Burundi. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12778Africa
The Role of Civil Society in Peace Processes – A Case Study of Guatemala: Ethical ReflectionsWenche Iren HaugeLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen action, Peace Process

​The Guatemalan peace process from 1990 to 1996 represents an early example of the inclusion of civil society in a negotiation process. However, once included, what role could civil society play – and in this case what role was it allowed to play? Clearly, civil society had an influence on the negotiations between the government and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG), but on some sensitive and critical issues civil society was prevented from exerting pressure on the parties. This case brief looks at the ethical implications of this situation.
Preventing Armed Conflict In Georgia (Adjara)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy, Citizen Action
The diplomatic efforts of the Georgian and Russian governments helped prevent a war in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-georgia-adjara/Georgia