Africa

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Africa

Produced by like minded partner organizations, these evidence based policy articles and reports focus on the geographical region of Africa

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TitleAuthorsSubject KeywordsAbstractLinkCountry Name  
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Mozambique (2013 – 2018)Elliot ShortNegotiations, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State ActorsTalks mediated by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Government of Switzerland helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Mozambique more than two decades after the devastating civil war there had ended.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-mozambique-2013-2018/Mozambique
Reducing Armed Conflict in Sudan (South Kordofan)Elliot ShortLocally-led peacemaking initiatives, FacilitationPeace Committees created with support from the NGO Peace Direct conducted at least 32 successful interventions to prevent relatively minor disputes from escalating into armed conflict in South Kordofan, Sudan.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-sudan-south-kordofan/Sudan
Stopping The Armed Conflict In The Central African Republic For Four YearsElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Ratification: Peace Agreement
The conflict in the Central African Republic was stopped for four years by a diplomatic intervention by regional governments and the deployment of a monitoring mission followed by a UN peacekeeping missionhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-for-four-years/Central African Republic
Engaging Civil Society Organizations in Conflict-Affected and Fragile States : Three African Country Case StudiesWorld Bank Citizen action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E)
Civil society organizations (CSOs) play a prominent role in conflict-affected and fragile states. In the absence of capable or credible public institutions due to conflict or weak policy environments, CSOs tend to substitute for public institutions and become primary providers of basic social services. At the same time, the international donor community has increased its involvement in countries affected by conflict and instability, often relying increasingly on CSOs to reach the poor. While the prominent role of CSOs in social service delivery and other development activities is often seen as an interim solution, it may extend for years, even decades. Recognizing that reliance on CSOs is likely to prevail for the foreseeable future in many countries, there is a need to consider how to make CSO engagement more effective and sustainable. The objective of this report is to identify approaches to more effectively engage CSOs in the context of weak public institutions in conflict-affected and fragile states. The report will: 1) Examine the roles, strengths, and weaknesses of CSOs in terms of service delivery, community development, advocacy, peace building, and governance; 2) Identify the factors that influence CSO effectiveness in performing these functions; 3) Assess donor influence on CSOs and their indirect influence on governance by supporting CSOs; and 4) Discuss the relationship between CSOs and government including their changing roles, weak communication, and government efforts to coordinate and regulate CSO activity. Key findings are presented from pilots of the Civil Society Assessment Tool (CSAT) in Angola, Guinea Bissau, and Togo. The pilots were conducted from January 2004 to February 2005. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12772Africa
Integrating Peacebuilding within Policy Frameworks in Post-conflict Settings Wilfred Gray-JohnsonPost-conflict, United Nations, frameworks, peacebuilding, policySince 2006, there has been much effort exerted towards integrating peacebuilding as a component of key policies and strategies as well as development programmes in post-conflict countries. This article intends to contribute to ongoing discussions on institutionalising peacebuilding, with a focus on Liberia. The article sets the premise that in order to foster the link between security and emergency programming, including longer-term development and sustained peace, especially in post-conflict countries, peacebuilding elements need to be infused into policies and programmes. In this regard, the article discusses efforts by the government of Liberia to integrate peacebuilding as a component of policies and frameworks as well as development programmes.https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/integrating-peacebuilding-within-policy-frameworks-in-post-conflict-settings/Liberia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In South AfricaElliot ShortDialogue, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
The deployment of monitoring missions by the Commonwealth, EU, Organisation of African Unity, and the UN helped to prevent violence during the 1994 elections and ensured that South Africa did not experience a conflict relapse after the transition from apartheid.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-south-africa/South Africa
Strengthening local and national infrastructures for peace in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho and South SudanNontobeko Zondi, Wandile LangaConflict Management, peacebuilding, conflict preventionIn 2016, ACCORD outlined its 2017–2021 Six-Pillar Strategy, which seeks to contribute to sustainable peace, security and development in Africa by mitigating conflict. One of the critical pillars of the Strategy is Pillar 2, which focuses on strengthening local and national infrastructures for peace. This Policy and Practice Brief aims to reflect on the practical experiences, challenges and lessons of ACCORD in advancing the concept of local and national capacity for peace, in the period 2018 to 2019. The preliminary reflections are drawn from ACCORD’s work in four countries, namely, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lesotho and South Sudan.https://www.accord.org.za/publication/strengthening-local-and-national-infrastructures-for-peace-in-burundi-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-lesotho-and-south-sudan/Democratic Republic of the Congo
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Mali-Niger-Burkina Faso International BorderElliot ShortMediation, Reconciliation, Peace Processes: ImplementationThe Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue has worked with the governments of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to reduce armed conflict in the frontier region where their respective international borders meet.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-mali-niger-burkina-faso-international-border/Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso
Preventing Armed Conflict in MadagascarElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Peace Processes: Implementation, ElectionsA political crisis which verged on the brink of sparking a civil war in Madagascar was prevented from escalating by an effective international diplomatic intervention and the mediation of a peace agreement by the Southern African Development Community.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-madagascar/Madagascar
The six principles of Adaptive Peacebuilding ACCORDAdaptive peacebuilding, fragile states, locally-led, theory of changeAdaptive peacebuilding is an approach that can help navigate this delicate balance between international support and local self-organisation. Peacebuilders, together with the communities and people affected by the conflict, actively engage in a structured process to sustain peace by employing an iterative process of learning and adaptation. The adaptive peacebuilding approach is aimed at supporting societies to develop the resilience and robustness they need to cope with and adapt to change by developing greater levels of complexity in their social institutions.https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/the-six-principles-of-adaptive-peacebuilding/Central African Republic
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In ComorosElliot ShortElections, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organizationm, DialogueOngoing negotiations and the deployment of Organisation of African Unity/African Union observer missions and a military operation helped to ensure that Comoros did not experience a conflict relapse. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-comoros/Comoros
If Victims Become Perpetrators: Factors Contributing to Vulnerability and Resilience to Violent Extremism in the Central SahelLuca RaineriViolent extremism, Central SahelThis study focuses on young Fulani people in the regions of Mopti (Mali), Sahel (Burkina Faso) and Tillabéri (Niger), and analyses the factors contributing to community vulnerability or resilience to violent extremism. One of the key findings of this research is the assertion that violent extremism in the central Sahel is primarily a response to local conflicts, and that the link with international jihadism is more rhetoric than reality. This study shows that the most determining factor contributing to vulnerability or resilience to violent extremism is the experience (or perception) of abuse and violation by government authorities. On the other hand, the study shows that strengthening social cohesion, supporting young men’s and women’s role in their communities, and mitigating social and gender exclusion could strengthen community resilience. The research also identifies strategies to deploy to curb violent extremism in the central Sahel. To restore trust between marginalised citizens and their governments, international partners need to prioritise efforts aimed at supporting state accountability towards its citizens; improve access to justice, especially transitional justice, and ensure inclusive governance; improve supervision of the armed forces; and promote youth employment, including through migration.https://www.international-alert.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Sahel-Violent-Extremism-Vulnerability-Resilience-EN-2018.pdfBurkina Faso
Preventing Armed Conflict In ZimbabweElliot ShortGovernance: Transitition, Peace Processes: Inclusion, Preventive DiplomacyThe diplomatic intervention of the Southern African Development Community and South African President Mbeki helped to avert an armed conflict in Zimbabwe following a contested election in 2008. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-zimbabwe/Zimbabwe
Ending The Armed Conflict In Uganda (West Nile)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Amnesty, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The ongoing insurgency in northern Uganda was ended with a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-uganda-west-nile/Uganda
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Eritrea And YemenElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Mediation, Rule of LawThe immediate threat of armed conflict was ended and the territorial dispute over the Hanish Islands was resolved by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-eritrea-and-yemen/Yemen, Eritrea
Resolving The Militarised Border Dispute Between Guinea-Bissau And SenegalElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Rule of Law, War Prevention
French diplomacy helped to prevent border clashes from escalating while the arbitration of the ICJ resolved the territorial dispute between the two countries.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-border-dispute-between-guinea-bissau-and-senegal/Guinea-Bissau, Senegal
Ending The Armed Conflict In Mali (Second Tuareg Rebellion)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, War PreventionMediation by the Government of Algeria resulted in a ceasefire, allowing local people and organisations in Mali to participate in a peace process which ended the Second Tuareg Rebellion in the early 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mali-second-tuareg-rebellion/Mali
Lessons for “Partnership Peacekeeping” from the African Union Mission in SomaliaPaul D. Williams peacekeeping, stabilization, security reform, partnerships, locally-led, financial sustainabilityDeployed to Mogadishu in March 2007, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) operates through a complicated and extensive system of partnerships. This has been referred to as the “AMISOM model” of “partnership peacekeeping.” While this specific configuration of forces and mechanisms is unlikely to be repeated, AMISOM remains the longest-standing case of a peace enforcement operation built on such international partnerships. This report summarizes the main operational-level lessons across seven themes: force generation, logistics, security sector reform, protection of civilians, strategic communications, stabilization, and exit strategy. Many of these lessons have not been truly learned, internalized, and acted upon by the actors and organizations in question.https://www.ipinst.org/2019/10/lessons-partnership-peacekeeping-amisomSomalia
Building Just Societies: Reconciliation in Transitional SettingsEnrique Sánchez and Sylvia RognvikReconciliation, Citizen Action, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E)
Reconciliation is a key objective in building sustainable peace and preventing a relapse into conflict. It is about (re) building relationships among people and groups in society and between the state and its citizens. The process is highly context sensitive, and each society has to tailor its approach to the nature of the conflict and the character of the transition. The reconciliation workshop held in Accra, Ghana in June 2012 gathered practitioners and experts from past and current reconciliation processes to share experiences in a practitioner dialogue and to inform future strategies and actions on reconciliation. It was a collaboration between the UN Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO), the Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre (NOREF) and the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC), and focused on lessons learned and good practices in thematic areas within reconciliation such as healing; the relation- ship between truth, justice and reconciliation; reparation; reconciliation efforts at different levels and how they are connected to one another; and the role of the international community.https://www.un.org/peacebuilding/sites/www.un.org.peacebuilding/files/documents/12-58492_feb13.pdfGhana
From Conflict to Coping: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia on the contributions of peacebuilding to drought resilience among pastoralist groupsJon Kurtz, Greg ScarboroughConflict Resolution, Project EvaluationThis evaluation report assess the impact of Mercy Corps peaebuilding programs in Southern Ethiopia. In particular, the evaluation reports looks at the effects of the Strengthening Institutions for Peace and Development (SIPED) projecthttps://static1.squarespace.com/static/5db70e83fc0a966cf4cc42ea/t/5f3d8d985b5b1a594513029e/1597869466741/0595.pdfEthiopia
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Djibouti And EritreaElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Ratification: Peace Agreement, SanctionsThe militarised territorial dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea was prevented from escalating in 2017 by the timely diplomatic intervention of the African Union and was ultimately resolved after the Government of Saudi Arabia mediated a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-djibouti-and-eritrea/Djibouti, Eritrea
Ending The Armed Conflict In Sierra LeoneElliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Rule of Law, CeasefireThe war in Sierra Leone was ended and constitutional rule was re-established by a British military intervention in support of a UN peacekeeping mission after over a decade of conflict and devastation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-sierra-leone/Sierra Leone
Reducing Armed Conflict In GhanaElliot ShortMediation, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen ActionArmed conflict across Ghana has been reduced by the construction and maintenance of a comprehensive peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/Ghana
Strengthening local and national infrastructures for peace in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho and South SudanNontobeko Zondi, Wandile LangaConflict Management, peacebuilding, conflict preventionIn 2016, ACCORD outlined its 2017–2021 Six-Pillar Strategy, which seeks to contribute to sustainable peace, security and development in Africa by mitigating conflict. One of the critical pillars of the Strategy is Pillar 2, which focuses on strengthening local and national infrastructures for peace. This Policy and Practice Brief aims to reflect on the practical experiences, challenges and lessons of ACCORD in advancing the concept of local and national capacity for peace, in the period 2018 to 2019. The preliminary reflections are drawn from ACCORD’s work in four countries, namely, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lesotho and South Sudan.https://www.accord.org.za/publication/strengthening-local-and-national-infrastructures-for-peace-in-burundi-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-lesotho-and-south-sudan/Lesotho
Ending The Interstate Conflict Between Eritrea And EthiopiaElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Dialogue, PeacekeepingThe war between Eritrea and Ethiopia was ended by mediation efforts led by the Organisation of African Unity during negotiations held in Algeria and the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) to the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-eritrea-and-ethiopia/Ethiopia
Bringing Stability to SomaliaElliot ShortLocal Peace Initiative, Conflict PreventionMost of north-east Somalia was spared from the conflicts and famines of the 1990s thanks to the efforts of local people and organisations in Puntland to reduce armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/bringing-stability-to-somalia/Somalia
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between Botswana And NamibiaElliot ShortNegotiation, Mediation, Ratification: Peace AgreementThe territorial dispute between Botswana and Namibia, the result of an 1890 treaty between Germany and the UK, was peacefully resolved by the arbitration of the International Court of Justice in 1999 after a series of border clashes.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-botswana-and-namibia/Botswana, Namibia
Together We Can: Supporting Local Peace Efforts in Magwi CountyAdalei Broers, Amzah JumaProject Evaluation, MediationThis report offers approaches to conducting conflict mapping exercises and engages local partners and local communities to resolve conflict and to intervene in case of an event to reduce tensions. The report focuses on conflict mediation efforts in between two tribal groups in South Sudan: The Madi, and the Acholi. The report highlights the importance of unifiers in bringing communities together and finding common ground that can help foster peace and stability. In particular, the report showcases the crucial role that religious leaders can play in peace processes. Critically, the report notes the pressures on Women in those communities and the pivotal role they play in their communities and in the peace processes. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12764South Sudan
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In West Africa With Legal ProsecutionsElliot ShortReconciliation, Human Rights, Rule of LawBy removing powerful figures with a history of employing violence and armed conflict from the political environment, establishing a historical record of events leading up to and during the war, and bringing the perpetrators of war crimes to justice, a series of transitional justice mechanisms helped to prevent a conflict relapse in West Africa.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-west-africa-with-legal-prosecutions/West Africa
Preventing Armed Conflict In Ghana (Kingdom Of Dagbon)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Identity and Conflict, Governance: Power Sharing
A war between rival claimants to the throne of the Kingdom of Dagbon in Northern Ghana was prevented by a Ghanaian military intervention and the mediation of a peace agreement after sixteen years of talks.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana-kingdom-of-dagbonauto/Ghana
The Missing Link : Fostering Positive Citizen-State Relations in Post-Conflict Environmentsvon Kaltenborn-Stachau, Henriette.Governance: Reforms, Inclusive Peacebuilding, Citizen ActionThe aim of this study is to convince national and multilateral policy makers of the importance of the public sphere concept for democratic governance and strategic post-conflict assistance planning with the objective of positive and sustainable change in current post-conflict assistance policy and practice. The study introduces the conceptual thinking underlying the public sphere framework and, citing evidence from different countries, highlights its relevance and calls for its application in post-conflict environments. For practitioners the study provides a public sphere assessment toolkit and a toolbox for interventions. It also offers concrete examples and recommendations on how to address the specific governance challenges identified through a public sphere analysis in three countries: Timor-Leste, Liberia and Burundi. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12778Africa
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nigeria (Kaduna State)Elliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Facilitation, DialogueThe efforts of local people and organisations, the local administration, and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue helped to bring 29 communities affected by armed conflict together and create a peace agreement and an infrastructure to support and monitor implementation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-kaduna-state/Nigeria
The Impact of COVID-19 on Peace and Confict Dynamics: A Case Study of Korogocho Informal Settlement, Nairobi, KenyaInternational AlertSocial cohesion, inter-communal conflict, COVID-19The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had a major impact in Kenya, not just through illness and deaths caused by the virus, but also due to the effects of measures put in place to limit its spread. Kenya’s economy has contracted and household food insecurity has increased markedly. Many women, young people and members of vulnerable groups are worst affected by the socio-economic impacts. This research looked at the impact of COVID-19 not just on people’s livelihoods, but also on social cohesion in Nairobi’s informal settlements, with a focus on the Korogocho informal settlement. Korogocho was known to have a history of conflict and experienced particularly high levels of violence following the 2007 general election. It was also thought to be less ‘researched’ than some other informal settlements in Nairobi.https://www.international-alert.org/publications/impact-covid-19-peace-and-conflict-dynamics-korogocho-nairobi-kenyaKenya
Preventing Armed Conflict in LesothoElliot ShortDialogue, Peacekeeping, ElectionsThe Southern African Development Committee Preventive Mission in Lesotho helped to maintain stability during a period of severe political crisis in Lesotho, preventing an armed conflict from erupting in 2017.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-lesotho/Lesotho
Stopping The Armed Conflict In Angola For Five YearsElliot ShortElections, Governance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party
The fighting in Angola was significantly reduced for approximately five years thanks to the mediation efforts of the UN and the governments of Portugal and USA.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-angola-for-five-years/Angola
Climate-Related Security Risks and Peacebuiliding in MaliFarah Hegazi, Florian Krampe, Elizabeth Seymour SmithClimate and peacebuiliding, Climate change, Climate-related risksClimate-related security risks are transforming the security landscape in which multilateral peacebuilding efforts are taking place. Following a similar assessment of Somalia conducted in 2019, this study offers another glimpse into the future of peacebuilding in the time of climate change by providing an in-depth assessment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). To help future peacebuilding efforts become more climate sensitive, the study aims to produce practical knowledge on: (a) how climate change in Mali is challenging the successful implementation of MINUSMA’s mandate; and (b) how MINUSMA has taken the challenges stemming from climate change into account in its ongoing operations. Mali is experiencing a multidimensional crisis, triggered by a rebellion in the north of the country in 2012. The northern and central regions are currently the most affected by violence and insecurity. Socio-economic exclusion, poor governance in peripheral areas and competition over natural resources are among the complex set of root causes of the current conflict. Combined with weak governance, climate change is further undermining people’s human security. The dependence on natural resources for livelihoods makes large segments of the population in Mali vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, which are reshaping the social, political and economic context, and thereby potentially amplifying local grievances and marginalization.https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/sipri-policy-papers/climate-related-security-risks-and-peacebuilding-maliMali
"Liberians for Liberians": A Locally-Led Ebola Campaign in LiberiaStacey L. Connaughton, Kai Kuang, Liliya Yakova, Arunima Krishna, Jasmine Linabary, Grace Yeanay MaysonPublic health, Ebola, local community activismThe Pen-Pen Peace Network, a local peace committee in Liberia, has been fighting the Ebola outbreak with its own Ebola Campaign, with the assistance and encouragement of the Purdue Peace Project (PPP), USA, and the Women Movement for Sustainable Develop-ment-Liberia (WOMSUD). This report summarizes and highlights the work that these local Liberians have done to date and the pre-liminary findings that have emerged from systematic data collec-tion of their work.https://cla.purdue.edu/ppp/documents/publications/Liberians.pdfLiberia
Purdue University Report on the International Peace and Prosperity Project in Guinea-BissauMohan J. Dutta, Stacey L. Connaughton, Evan Hoffman, Agaptus Anaele, Christina Jones, Angela KachuyevskiViolence prevention, local peacebuildingThe International Peace and Prosperity Project (IPPP) meaningfully contributed to peace in Guinea-Bissau by engaging in numerous diverse activities across different sectors and at various levels with many actors and collaborators. Based on five years of working towards peace and prosperity in Guinea-Bissau, two key lessons were learned. First, an effective violence prevention initiative needs to maintain maximum flexibility and pursue multiple initiatives simultaneously, especially during times of impending crisis. Second, leadership and engagement by local people is necessary for success in violence prevention and peace initiatives. Other important key lessons, as outlined later on in this report, were also gleaned from the IPPP experience.https://www.cla.purdue.edu/ppp/documents/publications/Purdue.pdfGuinea-Bissau
Preventing Armed Conflict In Guinea-BissauElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), MediationA diplomatic intervention led by Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the deployment of the ECOWAS Mission in Guinea-Bissau helped to prevent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau in 2012.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guinea-bissau/Guinea-Bissau
Insecurity and Governance Challenges in Southern LibyaFrederic Wehrey Instability, extremism, governance, international community, Southern Libya remains a region of endemic instability wracked by communal conflict, a shortage of basic services, rampant smuggling, and fragmented or collapsed institutions. The region has long existed on the periphery of Libya’s politics and international concerns—but that must change. Increasingly, the vacuum of governance in the south has drawn in political actors from northern Libya and outside states. Extremists seeking refuge in the south and migrants being smuggled through the region directly impact the security of Libya, neighboring states like Tunisia, and Europe.https://carnegieendowment.org/2017/03/30/insecurity-and-governance-challenges-in-southern-libya-pub-68451Libya
Stabilizing Northeast Nigeria After Boko HaramSaskia BrechenmacherInstability, governance, locally-led, conflict-preventionThis paper provides an overview of these local-level efforts and the theories of change that undergird them.3 It highlights initial lessons learned by donors and implementers, as well as persistent tensions between local-level program objectives and higher-level political and conflict dynamics. Most stabilization programs were designed with the assumption that the security situation in northeastern Nigeria would continue to improve, thereby facilitating the gradual return of displaced populations and local government. Yet in practice, Nigeria’s overstretched, under-resourced, and corruption-plagued military has struggled to consolidate its gains. Civilians in many parts of the northeast face ongoing threats from both insurgent attacks as well as counterterrorism operations. Rampant corruption and ineffective coordination have hampered the Nigerian government’s civilian response to the crisis, with various federal, state, and local elites benefiting from the continuation of the crisis. Moreover, while international partners stress the need for a regional response to the crisis, the region lacks an effective political infrastructure, and cooperation has been primarily externally driven.

The Nigerian case thus exemplifies the difficulties of implementing effective local-level stabilization efforts while working with a host government that lacks political commitment, transparency, and coordination. While local-level programs have shown positive impacts in various areas, they have struggled to gain wider traction—particularly since donors are often working through or dependent on the government to operate.
https://carnegieendowment.org/2019/05/03/stabilizing-northeast-nigeria-after-boko-haram-pub-79042Nigeria
Keeping The Peace And Building Stability In NamibiaElliot ShortGovernance: Constitutions, Elections, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The United Nations Transition Assistance Group helped to ensure that the withdrawal of South African troops and broader post-conflict transition of the newly independent Namibian state was peaceful.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-and-building-stability-in-namibia/Namimbia
Ending The Armed Conflict In South SudanElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Agreement
The mediation efforts of a wide range of international actors and the protestations of the Pope helped to end the armed conflict in South Sudan in 2018.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-sudan/South Sudan
Creating the Political Space for Prevention: How ECOWAS Supports Nationally Led StrategiesPaige Arthur, Céline MonnierMonitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Early Warning, Citizen action
In discussions on the prevention agenda at the United Nations, member states express reservations about potential infringement upon their sovereignty. Some are concerned about an approach to prevention that entails an assessment of their vulnerabilities and risks for violent conflict. This policy brief looks at how ECOWAS has addressed similar sensitivities with its member states in West Africa and is successfully accompanying them to build nationally led, upstream prevention strategies.https://cic.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/regional_organization_final_august_29_pdf.pdfWest Africa
If Victims Become Perpetrators: Factors Contributing to Vulnerability and Resilience to Violent Extremism in the Central SahelLuca RaineriViolent extremism, Central SahelThis study focuses on young Fulani people in the regions of Mopti (Mali), Sahel (Burkina Faso) and Tillabéri (Niger), and analyses the factors contributing to community vulnerability or resilience to violent extremism. One of the key findings of this research is the assertion that violent extremism in the central Sahel is primarily a response to local conflicts, and that the link with international jihadism is more rhetoric than reality. This study shows that the most determining factor contributing to vulnerability or resilience to violent extremism is the experience (or perception) of abuse and violation by government authorities. On the other hand, the study shows that strengthening social cohesion, supporting young men’s and women’s role in their communities, and mitigating social and gender exclusion could strengthen community resilience. The research also identifies strategies to deploy to curb violent extremism in the central Sahel. To restore trust between marginalised citizens and their governments, international partners need to prioritise efforts aimed at supporting state accountability towards its citizens; improve access to justice, especially transitional justice, and ensure inclusive governance; improve supervision of the armed forces; and promote youth employment, including through migration.https://www.international-alert.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Sahel-Violent-Extremism-Vulnerability-Resilience-EN-2018.pdfNiger
The Role of Inclusive Multi-stakeholder Partnerships in Enhancing Conflict Transformation in the Great Lakes Bernard Okok Obuogaconflict management, effectiveness, cyclical conflictThe Great Lakes Project (GLP), a collaborative initiative by the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), the Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC), and the Nairobi Peace Initiative – Africa (NPI-Africa) – developed a three-year project in 2012, titled “Consolidating Peacebuilding in the Great Lakes of Africa”. The overall purpose of the project was to ensure that local communities were mobilised to engage with, and address, conflict factors through grassroots civil society organisations (CSOs). While undertaking its mandate, the GLP identified various challenges and policy gaps, which included the lack of strategic approaches to prevent conflict relapse. This paper illustrates and interrogates the dynamics of these shortcomings, and defines the role of inclusive, multi-stakeholder partnerships to address these.https://www.accord.org.za/publication/role-inclusive-multi-stakeholder-partnerships-enhancing-conflict-transformation-great-lakes/Africa
Ending The Armed Conflict In NigerElliot ShortDiplomacy, Ceasefire, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The third Tuareg rebellion (2007-2009) in Niger was ended with a peace agreement mediated by the Government of Libya.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-niger-2/Niger
Ending The Proxy Conflict Between Chad And SudanElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy: Track 1, Peace Processes: Implementation
A peace agreement mediated by the Government of Senegal helped to end years of proxy conflict between the governments of Chad and Sudan and reduce the risk of a major interstate conflict between them.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-proxy-conflict-between-chad-and-sudan/Chad
Strengthening local and national infrastructures for peace in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho and South SudanNontobeko Zondi, Wandile LangaConflict Management, peacebuilding, conflict preventionIn 2016, ACCORD outlined its 2017–2021 Six-Pillar Strategy, which seeks to contribute to sustainable peace, security and development in Africa by mitigating conflict. One of the critical pillars of the Strategy is Pillar 2, which focuses on strengthening local and national infrastructures for peace. This Policy and Practice Brief aims to reflect on the practical experiences, challenges and lessons of ACCORD in advancing the concept of local and national capacity for peace, in the period 2018 to 2019. The preliminary reflections are drawn from ACCORD’s work in four countries, namely, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lesotho and South Sudan.https://www.accord.org.za/publication/strengthening-local-and-national-infrastructures-for-peace-in-burundi-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-lesotho-and-south-sudan/South Sudan
Ending The Armed Conflict In Côte D’ivoireElliot ShortCivil War, Ceasefire, PeacekeepingA series of international peacekeeping missions helped to contain the conflict in Côte d’Ivoire until a French/UN 2011 military intervention definitively ended the conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-cote-divoire/Cote D'Ivoire
Ending The Armed Conflict In South Africa (Natal)Elliot ShortCeasefire, Election, Reconciliation
The armed conflict between the ANC and Inkatha/IFP in the South African province of Natal during the end of apartheid was ended.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-africa-natal/South Africa
Conflict Assessment, Galmudug State: An Analysis of Local PerspectivesAbass Kassim Sheikh, Janel B. Galvanek, Pascal GrimmInclusive Peace Processes, Local PeacemakingThis study investigated the nature and dynamics of conflicts in Galmudug State. The assessment examined the various conflicts that exist in the state and the key actors that play a central role in these conflicts. It also examined the conflict resolution mechanisms that are used to resolve local conflicts in Galmudug State, and the actors that play an important role in conflict resolution and reconciliation processes. Additionally, it examined opinions and attitudes on topics such as federalism and overall political participation in Galmudug State while also investigating the various challenges to conflict resolution and reconciliation processes.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/conflict-assessment-galmudug-state-an-analysis-of-local-perspectivesSomalia
Reducing Armed Conflict Across Nigeria (Middle Belt)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: Local, Migration and Conflict

The development of a peace infrastructure across the Middle Belt of Nigeria has helped to reduce armed conflict and prevent electoral violence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-nigeria-middle-belt/Nigeria
Assessing International Statebuilding Initiative Effectiveness at Preventing Armed Conflict RecurrenceElliot ShortStatebuildingThe practice of statebuilding is employed by a broad spectrum of multilateral organisations and national governments as a tool to stabilise fragile states, including those that are recovering from conflict. However, much of the existing literature focuses on weighing up the ethical arguments concerning statebuilding rather than analysing its impact on the societies in which it takes place. This assessment combines data from Fund for Peace’s Fragile States Index, financial data harvested from relevant publicly available databases, and an extensive survey of the academic and policy literature to examine whether statebuilding is an effective means of preventing post-conflict states from relapsing into war. By exploring the cases of Burundi, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, and Nepal, it demonstrates that although statebuilding can help to achieve this goal, certain conditions and methods are required for it to be effective. When such conditions and methods are absent, donors’ resources are employed to build regimes rather than states and leave the recipient country at risk of returning to conflict.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12168Burundi
National Election Response Groups as infrastructures for peace Reuben J.B. Lewiselection violence, state-building, locally-ledIn West Africa, National Elections Response Groups (NERGs) are being developed as response structures to mitigate election-related conflict, and their operationalisation is proving to be successful in a number of countries that have held elections – including, most recently, in Sierra Leone. NERGs are designed as infrastructures for peace, and serve as platforms for peaceful dialogue and shuttle diplomacy with political parties during national elections. NERGs also respond to incidences of harassment, intimidation and violence; work towards keeping communities calm and organised; and engage with all political groups to keep the peace. This article discusses the development and operationalisation of NERGs as an infrastructure for peace during recent elections in some West African countries.https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/national-election-response-groups-as-infrastructures-for-peace/Liberia
Reflecting on the Role of Regional and International Interventions in Resolving the Post-coup Crisis in SudanClayton Hazvinei VhumbunuCitizen Action, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Governance: Transitition
A coup brought to Sudan a change of power after the 30-year governance of the former president Al-Bashir, which was followed by a crisis as there was no effective transitional governance. Following these lines, regional and international interventions influenced Sudan in its post-coup crisis, creating a pathway towards a more stable transition and settlement. External actors -- some regional and international institutions -- have had implications in African conflicts. Taking into account the accomplishments and limitation, the role of regional and international actors were key to addressing conflict and tensions in Sudan and the subregion. The transitional governance in Sudan provides an example of enhanced sustainability and broader involvement by external influences on the continent. This article focuses on the main influential external actors, which include the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Ethiopia (under the Ethiopian Initiative), the African Union Commission (AUC), the Arab League, the Sudan Troika (of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Norway) and the United Nations (UN). Coordinated interventions such as this one — leading to civilian-led government and stability — provide insights towards the role of external institutions upon peace and stability in the continent, which are worth reflecting on and considering for further action. https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/reflecting-on-the-role-of-regional-and-international-interventions-in-resolving-the-post-coup-crisis-in-sudan/Sudan
Preventing Armed Conflict In São Tomé And PríncipeElliot ShortRule of Law, Governance: Reforms, Preventive Diplomacy
Constitutional order was peacefully restored in São Tomé and Príncipe thanks to the mediation efforts of a host of national governments and international organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-sao-tome-and-principe/São Tomé and Príncipe
If Victims Become Perpetrators: Factors Contributing to Vulnerability and Resilience to Violent Extremism in the Central SahelLuca RaineriViolent extremism, Central SahelThis study focuses on young Fulani people in the regions of Mopti (Mali), Sahel (Burkina Faso) and Tillabéri (Niger), and analyses the factors contributing to community vulnerability or resilience to violent extremism. One of the key findings of this research is the assertion that violent extremism in the central Sahel is primarily a response to local conflicts, and that the link with international jihadism is more rhetoric than reality. This study shows that the most determining factor contributing to vulnerability or resilience to violent extremism is the experience (or perception) of abuse and violation by government authorities. On the other hand, the study shows that strengthening social cohesion, supporting young men’s and women’s role in their communities, and mitigating social and gender exclusion could strengthen community resilience. The research also identifies strategies to deploy to curb violent extremism in the central Sahel. To restore trust between marginalised citizens and their governments, international partners need to prioritise efforts aimed at supporting state accountability towards its citizens; improve access to justice, especially transitional justice, and ensure inclusive governance; improve supervision of the armed forces; and promote youth employment, including through migration.https://www.international-alert.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Sahel-Violent-Extremism-Vulnerability-Resilience-EN-2018.pdfMali
Ending The Armed Conflict In NigerElliot ShortClimate and Conflict, Armed Non-State Actors, Governance: ReformsThe 1991-1997 Tuareg rebellion in Niger was ended by a series of peace agreements, heralding a decade of relative peace in the country.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-niger/Niger
Reducing Armed Conflict In MaliElliot ShortMediation, Peace Processes: Implementation, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party

The Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue has facilitated a series of successful peace processes between communities in Mali, helping them to negotiate peace agreements and build mechanisms to prevent further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-mali/Mali
Towards full spectrum conflict prevention: the international peace and prosperity project in Guinea-BissauEvan HoffmanConflict Prevention and Early Warning, Failed StatesThe author analyzes the results of a pilot project (2004 – 2009) focused on conflict prevention and early warning in Guinea Bissau by the Canadian International Institute of Applied Negotiation. Guinea Bissau was considered at risk of violent armed and as a result an early warning and crisis management process was initiated. The article focuses on the results and lessons learned of that process. The stages of the process—crisis management, violence prevention, and the development of a National Plan of Action for Peace and Prosperity in Guinea Bissau—are analyzed within the context of a failing state. In addition, the article explores to what degree, over five years, an outside-driven effort to prevent political violence was effective. While the project was never able to reach the ambitious and robust goal of political conflict being resolved nonviolently, there were many small successes along the way that can be learned from, including building trust and meeting local needs, local project leadership, and integrated efforts. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12711Guinea-Bissau
National Election Response Groups as infrastructures for peace Reuben J.B. Lewiselection violence, state-building, locally-ledIn West Africa, National Elections Response Groups (NERGs) are being developed as response structures to mitigate election-related conflict, and their operationalisation is proving to be successful in a number of countries that have held elections – including, most recently, in Sierra Leone. NERGs are designed as infrastructures for peace, and serve as platforms for peaceful dialogue and shuttle diplomacy with political parties during national elections. NERGs also respond to incidences of harassment, intimidation and violence; work towards keeping communities calm and organised; and engage with all political groups to keep the peace. This article discusses the development and operationalisation of NERGs as an infrastructure for peace during recent elections in some West African countries.https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/national-election-response-groups-as-infrastructures-for-peace/Sierra Leone
Ending The Proxy Conflict Between Chad And SudanElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy: Track 1, Peace Processes: Implementation
A peace agreement mediated by the Government of Senegal helped to end years of proxy conflict between the governments of Chad and Sudan and reduce the risk of a major interstate conflict between them.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-proxy-conflict-between-chad-and-sudan/Sudan
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In MozambiqueElliot ShortElections, Peace Agreement, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The United Nations Operations in Mozambique helped to maintain peace and stability in extremely adverse conditions in post-war Mozambique.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-mozambique/Mozambique
Ending The Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (North Kivu - Cndp)Elliot ShortDiplomacy, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Armed Non-State ActorsThe armed conflict between the Congress for the Defence of the People and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo in North Kivu was ended with a peace agreement following a UN investigation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-north-kivu-cndp/Democratic Republic of Congo
Ending The Armed Conflict In Ghana (Northern Region)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: Local, Economics and Conflict
The Guinea Fowl War in the Northern Region of Ghana was ended by the deployment of troops and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-ghana-northern-region/Ghana
Organized Crime in Mali: Why it Matters for a Peaceful Transition from ConflictLuca Raineri, Chiara GallettiOrganized crime, institutional fragilityInadequate governance, institutional fragility and widespread insecurity are both consequences and causes of the expansion of criminal activities. The impact of their proliferation is key to understanding the current – and endemic – instability affecting Mali. Yet, to date, there is little indication that policy strategies put forward by the Malian government, as well as by its international partners, are learning from the past to engage with the issue of organised crime as a threat to peace and security. This policy brief aims to help address this gap. Understanding how crime impacts on the achievement of development goals, on conflict risks, and on mounting fragility and safety threats is indeed crucial for building long-lasting and sustainable peace in Mali.https://www.international-alert.org/publications/organised-crime-mali/Mali
Youth as Agents of Peace : SomaliaWorld Bank; United NationEconomics and Conflict, YouthThis paper is the first joint country study conducted by the United Nations and the World Bank aimed at translating into practice the principles of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 2250, through direct and local engagement with young people and their communities in one of the most fragile and conflict-ridden areas on the African continent. Focusing on young people is particularly meaningful as Somalia’s population is the youngest of the African continent overall. Against a backdrop of continued conflict, insecurity, and violent extremism facing Somalia, the study offers a positive vision for defining peace as articulated by young women and men. It concludes by offering an operational framework for supporting youth in peacebuilding. The report’s recommendations postulate a comprehensive understanding of youth, peace, and conflict going beyond solutions based solely on increased employment. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12770Somalia
Ending The Armed Conflict In South AfricaElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking: Interreligious, Governance: Transition, DialogueThe armed conflict between the African National Congress (ANC) and the Government of South Africa was ended and the risk of a larger war was minimised.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-africa/South Africa
Promoting Peaceful and Safe Seasonal Migration in Northern Central African RepublicGuillaume de Brier, Peer Schouten, Peter Marsden, Dirk Gillebert, Timea Szarkova, Anna Moens, Lucie HayeSeasonal migration, conflictThe borderlands of the Central African Republic (CAR) are home to one of the largest seasonal livestock migrations (transhumance) in the world. Decades of unrest and crisis, however, have brutally disrupted most aspects of herding—the routes taken, the people involved, governance mechanisms, as well as relations to local populations. To understand these changes and inform future peacebuilding efforts, IPIS and Concordis conducted a large-scale mapping and consultation with 1.300 stakeholders in CAR’s western borderlands of Ouham-Pendé and Western Ouham. Based on these consultations, the report takes a deep dive into the different mutual perceptions of transboundary and local herders and sedentary people of the deep causes of conflict and pathways for peaceful cohabitation. It identifies changes in herding routes and practices, highlights grass-root barriers to peace, assesses trust in different institutions for security and justice, and identifies opportunities for conflict transformation and economic growth.https://pure.diis.dk/ws/files/4060092/2021_Concordis_Report.pdfCentral African Republic
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Kenya (Wajir)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen action, Dialogue,
Conflict relapses in Wajir County were prevented and armed conflict in the area has been significantly reduced thanks to the maintenance of a peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kenya-wajir/Kenya
Preventing Armed Conflict in MalawiElliot ShortDialogue, Facilitation, Preventive DiplomacyA timely diplomatic intervention by the UN helped to prevent an ongoing political crisis in Malawi from escalating into armed conflict in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-malawi/Malawi
Locally Led Peacebuiliding: A Case Study of a Chieftency Dispute in the Brong Ahafo Region of GhanaPurdue Peace ProjectLocal peacebuiliding, community disputeLocally led peacebuilding, also referred to as locally driven peacebuilding, is a move to recognize that those who are directly affected by conflict should drive peacebuilding efforts. This white paper responds to calls for more data-driven exemplars of locally driven peacebuilding. It does so by presenting as a case study the work of the Purdue Peace Project (PPP) in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana to help prevent violence related to a long-standing chieftaincy dispute.https://www.cla.purdue.edu/ppp/documents/publications/locallyledpeacebuilding2018.pdfGhana
Interactions Between Peacemaking and Constitution-Making Processes in Burundi: A Stabilising or a Crisis Factor?Willy Peter NindoreraDemocracy and Governance, Conflict PreventionThis study analyzes the regional mediation process of the Arusha Accords in Burundi. The process, first chaired by president of Tanzania Nyerere and then by Nelson Mandela, lasted for over two years and led to very comprehensive and detailed peace agreements. Constitutional reforms followed and were, to a large extent, directly implemented provisions from the Arusha Accords after another complicated negotiations process which required further mediation by South Africa. This case suggests that while the process has managed to end the civil war, it lacks legitimacy and it has not led to democratic governance. The case study also analyzes the role of ethnicity in peace processes, the impact of different mediation styles, the limitations of power sharing agreements, and the challenges of transforming rebel groups into political parties.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/interactions-between-peacemaking-and-constitution-making-processes-in-burundi-a-stabilising-or-a-crisis-factorBurundi
Breaking the Silos: Pragmatic National Approaches to PreventionPaige Arthur, Céline MonnierEarly Warning, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Inclusive Peacebuilding
Through the twin resolutions on sustaining peace, member states have agreed on the relevance of a cross-pillar approach to prevention. Now the challenge lies in implementation. One place to look for positive examples is at country level, where governments tend to have a more pragmatic and less “siloed” approach to prevention, addressing the different risk factors simultaneously. In this policy briefing, we draw on examples from Côte d’Ivoire and Timor-Leste to illustrate how countries have developed integrated actions on prevention that cut across sectors, including security, development, and human rights. We then highlight options for the UN to better support these strategies
through cross-pillar approaches and identify practical ways forward for
governments implementing prevention approaches.
https://cic.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/pragmatic_national_approaches_to_prevention_final_august_31_web.pdfCote D'Ivoire
Preventing Widespread Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (Ituri)Elliot ShortFood Insecurity, Internally Displaced Persons/Refugees, Humanitarian EngagementOperation Artemis prevented a much larger conflict which could have contributed to a major famine from happening in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2003.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-widespread-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-ituri/Democratic Republic of Congo
Final Evaluation of Project: Promoting Locally – Driven Transformation and Collaborative Action in BurundiSylvestre BigirimanaMediation, Project EvaluationThis evaluation report showcases evidence of what works in terms of conflict mitigation considering refugees returns, and how media and broadcasting activities can play a role in building transparency and communication between local communities and national representatives. The evaluation report features useful indicators that could be of value for organizations looking to implement similar projects.

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5db70e83fc0a966cf4cc42ea/t/5f36e3bcab3dc4397cf750b2/1597432766591/0369.pdfBurundi
Ending The Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (North Kivu – M23)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Negotiations, PeacekeepingThe armed conflict in North Kivu between the Congolese government and the M23 armed group was ended by the deployment of a peacekeeping mission, regional diplomacy, and a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-north-kivu-m23/Democratic Republic of Congo
The Importance and Value of Local Peacemaking Initiatives: Lessons From AfricaBetter Evidence ProjectLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Mediation, Peacemaking
This session focus on the importance of local peacemaking initiatives and how outside intervenors can complement rather undermine such efforts, as too often occurs. The specific focus is on examples from Sub-Saharan Africa. Three cases are highlighted: a South Kivu dialogue process that was organized and facilitated by Carter School faculty member Charles Davidson and local partners in the DRC; local mediation practice in Bangassou in the Central African Republic supported by UN Senior Mediation Advisor and Better Evidence Project Advisory Board member Emmanuel Bombande; and a successful network of women mediators (HAWENKA) who have strengthened the ongoing peace process among warring Somali diaspora groups in Northern Kenya. The Carter School’s Better Evidence Project provided a grant to HAWENKA that developed lessons from the mediation with an eye to developing evidence of the effectiveness of locally facilitated peacemaking efforts. There is also a facilitated discussion about how local peacemaking initiatives are becoming more prevalent and more successful in areas where international efforts have usually failed.
https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/the-importance-and-value-of-local-peacemaking-initiatives-lessons-from-africa/Africa
Reducing Armed Conflict In The Horn Of Africa With Peace InfrastructureElliot ShortEarly Warning, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Conflict Prevention

The Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism established by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development has used data, technology, and a decentralised network of people and organisations to build an effective early warning system that has demonstrably reduced armed conflict across the Horn of Africa.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-the-horn-of-africa-with-peace-infrastructure/Horn of Africa
Regional Economic Communities and Peacebuilding in Africa Lessons from ECOWAS and IGADVictor Adetula, Redie Bereketeab, Cyril ObiPeacebuilding, EconomicsThis book outlines challenges to the effective operation of regional economic communities (RECs) with regards to peacebuilding in Africa. Critically examining these issues from an interdisciplinary perspective, with a focus on comparative analysis of the status, role, and performances of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), it examines particular constraints to their effective participation in regional initiatives. Focussing on inadequate technical capabilities, the complicity of state and non-state actors in conflicts within a region, the domestic politics of member states, it additionally addresses related theories and practices of peacekeeping, security, development, and the peacebuilding nexus. It also engages provisioning, regionalism, and regional peacekeeping interventions, the legal and institutional framework of RECs, and civil society and peacebuilding. Fundamentally, the book asks how effective the alliances and partnerships are in promoting regional peace and security and how much they are compromised by the intervention of external powers and actors, exploring new ideas and actions that may strengthen capacities to address the peacebuilding challenges on the continent effectively. This book will be of key interest to scholars and students of African politics and studies, peace and security studies, regionalism studies, policy practitioners in the field of African peacebuilding, and more broadly to international relations.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12175Africa
Preventing Armed Conflict In TunisiaElliot ShortCitizen Action, Governance: Constitutions, MediationThe National Dialogue Quartet, a consortium of four major Tunisian civil society organisations, helped to prevent armed conflict and guide their country on a peaceful course in the wake of the 2011 Jasmine Revolution.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-tunisia/Tunisia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In South SudanElliot ShortPeace Agreement, Governance: Transition. MediationThe IGAD has successfully prevented a conflict relapse in South Sudan by employing a range of monitoring mechanisms and facilitating ongoing dialogue between former belligerents.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-south-sudan/South Sudan
Reducing Armed Conflict Across KenyaElliot ShortCitizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Peace AgreementThe development of an effective peace infrastructure helped to reduce armed conflict across Kenya and limit the risk of electoral violence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-kenya/Kenya
Preventing Political Violence: Towards a Model for Catalytic Action--Lessons Learned from Guinea-Bissau
Conflict Prevention and Early WarningThis monograph lays out new ways the political violence that arises in failing states can be prevented and stability strengthened. This is essentially an interim report of the ‘Reducing Political Violence Action Group (RPVAG)’ that initiated an onsite case study in Guinea-Bissau, known as the ‘International Peace and Prosperity Project’. The aim was to set out a ‘Basic Concept’ for Violence Prevention, to try it out in a specific country, develop ‘Lessons Learned’ from that experience, and then to work towards a ‘New Approach to Violence Prevention’ and if possible a new ‘Model’ for similar work elsewhere. The monograph lays out the goals of the project and how it was implemented in Guinea Bissau. It discusses the basis of early warning indicators that guided the project on how and where to create a violence prevention initiative. The overall plan based around trust building and working with local leaders is presented as are the challenges and changes that were made to the plan during initial implementation in order to respond to changing circumstance The initial lessons learned and alterations to the plan itself are presented as recommendations about how to move the project in Guinea-Bissau forward as well as recommendations for similar conflict prevention projects.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12712Guinea-Bissau
Creating Stability through Prevention: a Locally Driven Ebola Prevention Campaign in LiberiaPurdue Peace ProjectPublic health, EbolaIn 2014, a decade after a prolonged civil war conflict, Liberia faced the greatest Ebola outbreak in its history. Over the course of the outbreak, more than 10,500 cases were recorded in the country and the total death toll equaled more than 4,500 individuals. The Ebola crisis posed not only a public health challenge, but also a political challenge in a country where post-war peace is still tenuous. To prevent the further spread of Ebola in their country, the Pen-Pen Peace Network (PPPN) – a peace committee of local Liberian citizens convened by the Purdue Peace Project (PPP) – designed, organized, and implemented what they called the Ebola Prevention Campaign. The PPPN conducted their Ebola Prevention Campaign with the support of the PPP and Women Movement for Sustainable Development Liberia (WOMSUD-Liberia). This report highlights the objectives, strategies, challenges, and impacts of the Ebola Prevention Campaign. The report is based on findings produced from data collected at multiple points in time between September 2014 and January 2015 during the Ebola Prevention Campaign.
https://cla.purdue.edu/ppp/documents/publications/Creating.pdfLiberia
Reducing Armed Conflict In Somalia (Somaliland)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), DialogueThanks to the efforts of local people and organisations, Somaliland has remained at peace for almost thirty years while much of the rest of Somalia was been plagued by conflict and famine.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-somalia-somaliland/Somalia
Preventing Armed Conflict In Burkina FasoElliot ShortCitizen Action, Governance: Transition, MediationPreventive diplomacy by the African Union and locally led mediation efforts helped to prevent a war in Burkina Faso following a military coup d’état.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-burkina-faso/Burkina Faso
Operationalizing the Sustaining Peace Agenda: Lessons from Burkina Faso, Liberia, and Papua New GuineaAgathe SarfatiOperations management, implementation, policy, sustained peaceThe twin resolutions on peacebuilding and sustaining peace adopted by the General Assembly and Security Council in 2016 made a breakthrough in the UN’s conception of peacebuilding. Significant work has since been undertaken to reconfigure the UN system to work toward the implementation of these resolutions, and the UN Peacebuilding Commission has launched a comprehensive review of the peacebuilding architecture to be completed in 2020. To inform this review, this issue brief synthesizes findings related to the operationalization of the peacebuilding and sustaining peace resolutions at the country level. The paper concludes that much of the focus to date has been on improving the effectiveness of how the UN delivers its mandates on peacebuilding and sustaining peace. To fully realize the vision of the sustaining peace agenda, its operationalization must increasingly focus on the impact of these efforts. This requires questioning and testing the theory of change underpinning these operational reforms to ensure the UN is effectively helping societies build the foundation for sustaining peace.https://www.ipinst.org/2020/06/operationalizing-sustaining-peace-agenda-burkina-faso-liberia-papua-new-guineaBurkina Faso
Elections and Violent Conflict in Kenya: Making Prevention StickClaire Elder; Susan Stigant; Jonas ClaesElection, Dialogue, Human RightsThis report aims to complement existing postelection analysis by examining local experiences of Kenya’s 2013 general elections, evaluating the various factors that worked to prevent widespread violent conflict and assessing the sustainability of the “relative calm” achieved during the electoral period. The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and its partners, the Constitutional Reform and Education Consortium (CRECO) and the Interparty Youth Forum (IPYF), convened citizen dialogues and conducted key informant interviews to evaluate preventive efforts around the March 2013 general elections in Kenya. Through qualitative research, USIP and its partners collected original data from November to mid-December 2013 in ten carefully selected counties across Kenya— Marsabit, Embu, Nyeri, Nakuru, Uasin Gishu, Bungoma, Kisumu, Nyamira, Mombasa, and Nairobi. The citizen views collected offer valuable insights into popular attitudes and the factors that influenced behavior during the electoral process. This report is part of USIP’s broader commitment to peace in the Horn of Africa and thematic focus on preventing electoral violence. https://www.usip.org/publications/2014/11/elections-and-violent-conflict-kenya-making-prevention-stick Kenya
Ending The Conflict In Sudan (South Sudan)Elliot ShortReferenda: Independence, Governance: Power Sharing, NegotiationsThe 50-year conflict between northern and southern Sudan was ended by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which paved the way for South Sudanese independence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-conflict-in-sudan-south-sudan/Sudan
National Election Response Groups as infrastructures for peace Reuben J.B. Lewiselection violence, state-building, locally-ledIn West Africa, National Elections Response Groups (NERGs) are being developed as response structures to mitigate election-related conflict, and their operationalisation is proving to be successful in a number of countries that have held elections – including, most recently, in Sierra Leone. NERGs are designed as infrastructures for peace, and serve as platforms for peaceful dialogue and shuttle diplomacy with political parties during national elections. NERGs also respond to incidences of harassment, intimidation and violence; work towards keeping communities calm and organised; and engage with all political groups to keep the peace. This article discusses the development and operationalisation of NERGs as an infrastructure for peace during recent elections in some West African countries.https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/national-election-response-groups-as-infrastructures-for-peace/Ghana
Containing The Armed Conflict In Western SaharaElliot ShortPeacekeeping,Governance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: United NationsThe United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara has helped to prevent renewed armed conflict in Western Sahara since 1991. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-western-sahara/Western Sahara
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nigeria (Plateau State)Elliot ShortAlternative Dispute Resolution, Monitoring/Verification: Local, Early Warning
A military intervention by the Nigerian military helped to contain intercommunal violence in Plateau State until the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue mediated a peace agreement which ended the fighting and helped create a peace infrastructure to continue its work and prevent a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-plateau-state/Nigeria
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Sierra LeoneElliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Peace Processes: Implementation, PeacekeepingThe United Nations Mission to Sierra Leone disarmed over 70,000 combatants, oversaw a peaceful election, and helped to strengthen the Sierra Leonean state, preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-sierra-leone/Sierra Leone
Empowering Ethiopian WomenUSAIDWomen, gender equality, community, education, health, equity. This fact sheet emphasizes the importance of women's access to resources, community participation, and contributions. It brings insights into the relevance to Ethiopia and the United States. The essential focus on empowering Ethiopian Women resides on the programming of increasing female educational and economic opportunities while promoting health and safety, as well as increasing women's roles in conflict prevention and peacemaking. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Fact_Sheet_Empowering_Ethiopian_Women_Jul_2017.pdfEthiopia
The six principles of Adaptive Peacebuilding ACCORDAdaptive peacebuilding, fragile states, locally-led, theory of changeAdaptive peacebuilding is an approach that can help navigate this delicate balance between international support and local self-organisation. Peacebuilders, together with the communities and people affected by the conflict, actively engage in a structured process to sustain peace by employing an iterative process of learning and adaptation. The adaptive peacebuilding approach is aimed at supporting societies to develop the resilience and robustness they need to cope with and adapt to change by developing greater levels of complexity in their social institutions.https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/the-six-principles-of-adaptive-peacebuilding/South Sudan
Preventing Armed Conflict in NigeriaElliot ShortProblem-Solving Workshop, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations
The National Peace Committee helped to guide Nigeria through its first peaceful elections in history amidst a tense a political climate, preventing an armed conflict.  https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-nigeria/Nigeria
ENSURING CONFLICT SENSITIVITY IN PROMOTING THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLESBureau for Conflict Prevention and Stabilization Conflict prevention, indigenous rights, integration.The real or perceived inequitable distribution of aid can increase tensions among neighboring communities, governments, or private industries. The PRO-IP Policy highlights examples of conflict and violence sparked by development actors’ inappropriate engagements with Indigenous Peoples. These conflicts feature insecure land tenure rights and natural resource management, displacement, exploitative or unsupportive actions of private industry and local government, legal marginalization, political violence, and well-intentioned, but potentially harmful, donor-funded initiatives.https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Conflict-Sensitivity-in-PRO-IP-Technical-Guidance.pdfDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Preventing Interstate Conflict In The Great LakesElliot ShortPeace Processes: Strategies, Diplomacy: Track 1, Conflict Prevention
After being established by the African Union and the UN, the ICGLR has prevented further interstate conflict in the Great Lakes since 2003.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-in-the-great-lakes/Great Lakes
Preventing Interstate Conflict Between Djibouti And EritreaElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party, Ratification: Peace Agreement
A low-intensity interstate conflict between Djibouti and Eritrea was prevented from escalating into a major war thanks to the mediation efforts of the Government of Qatar and the deployment of a Qatari peacekeeping mission.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-djibouti-and-eritrea/Djibouti, Eritrea
Preventing Conflict Relapse In LiberiaElliot ShortFragility, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), TrainingA series of peacekeeping operations helped to maintain stability in Liberia for fifteen years following the signing of the Accra Agreement, preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-conflict-relapse-in-liberia/Liberia
Preventing Armed Conflict In GuineaElliot ShortNegotiations, Elections, Governance: Transition
Thanks to timely diplomatic action by the African Union, Economic Community of West African States, and the UN, a violent political crisis in Guinea was prevented from escalating into armed conflict in 2009.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guinea/Guinea
Operationalizing the Sustaining Peace Agenda: Lessons from Burkina Faso, Liberia, and Papua New GuineaAgathe SarfatiOperations management, implementation, policy, sustained peaceThe twin resolutions on peacebuilding and sustaining peace adopted by the General Assembly and Security Council in 2016 made a breakthrough in the UN’s conception of peacebuilding. Significant work has since been undertaken to reconfigure the UN system to work toward the implementation of these resolutions, and the UN Peacebuilding Commission has launched a comprehensive review of the peacebuilding architecture to be completed in 2020. To inform this review, this issue brief synthesizes findings related to the operationalization of the peacebuilding and sustaining peace resolutions at the country level. The paper concludes that much of the focus to date has been on improving the effectiveness of how the UN delivers its mandates on peacebuilding and sustaining peace. To fully realize the vision of the sustaining peace agenda, its operationalization must increasingly focus on the impact of these efforts. This requires questioning and testing the theory of change underpinning these operational reforms to ensure the UN is effectively helping societies build the foundation for sustaining peace.https://www.ipinst.org/2020/06/operationalizing-sustaining-peace-agenda-burkina-faso-liberia-papua-new-guineaLiberia
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Chad And LibyaElliot ShortMediation, Rule of Law, Monitoring/Verification: United NationsFollowing the International Court of Justice’s judgement of the dispute, the United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group monitored the withdrawal of Libyan troops from the area and helped ensure that the handover of the disputed territory to Chad went ahead peacefully.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-chad-and-libya/Chad, Libya
Ending The Armed Conflict In BurundiElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Ratification: Peace Agreement

International mediation efforts led by South African President Nelson Mandela and the deployment of African Union and UN peacekeepers helped to end the war in Burundi after 13 years of armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-burundi/Burundi
Ending The Armed Conflict Between Communities In Ethiopia And KenyaElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Dialogue, Problem-Solving WorkshopThe 2005-2009 conflict between the Gabra and Borana communities on the Ethiopia/Kenya border was ended, stabilising the frontier, and reducing the likelihood of further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-communities-in-ethiopia-and-kenya/Ethiopia
Advancing Reconciliation and Promoting Peace in Northern Mali (ARPP)Mercy CorpsMediation, Early Warning, Conflict ResolutionThis report showcases evidence of project effectiveness in reducing youth involvement in violence, building mediation capacity to resolve conflicts, and building locally driven early warning systems in Mali.https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5db70e83fc0a966cf4cc42ea/t/5f4920167f5bd244a3cb628a/1598627863401/1396.pdfMali
Stopping The Armed Conflict In Somalia (Mudug)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Local
The peace agreement ended the fighting in the central province of Mudug, reducing armed conflict in the area and allowing supplies to cross Somalia, mitigating the impact of other conflicts.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-somalia-mudug/Somalia
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Côte d’Ivoire-Liberia BorderElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Preventive Diplomacy, PeacekeepingArmed conflict has been reduced in the relatively unstable borderlands between Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia and bilateral relations have also improved.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-cote-divoire-liberia-border/Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia
Preventing Armed Conflict In KenyaElliot ShortReconciliation, Elections, Citizen ActionElectoral violence in Kenya was prevented from escalating into armed conflict by the efforts of local people and organisations and the African Union’s Panel of Eminent Personalities, which led the talks which produced the National Accord and Reconciliation Acthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-kenya/Kenya
Mitigating The Impact Of Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (Butembo)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking: Interreligious, Private Sector and Peacebuilding, Food Insecurity
The city of Butembo and its population was spared from much of the fighting that took place across the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1999-2003 thanks to the efforts of local people and organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-butembo/Democratic Republic of the Congo
Containing the armed conflict between South Sudan and Sudan (Abyei)Elliot ShortMediation, PeacekeepingA UN peacekeeping mission has helped to prevent renewed armed conflict in the contested area of Abyei for a decade.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-between-south-sudan-and-sudan-abyei/Sudan
Reducing Conflict And Building Stability On The Burundi-Tanzania BorderElliot ShortTraining, Internally Displaced Persons/Refugees, Alternative Dispute ResolutionThe UN has helped to manage conflict and instability along the international border between Burundi and Tanzania, reducing the likelihood of armed conflict between communities and minimising the risk of an interstate conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-conflict-and-building-stability-on-the-burundi-tanzania-border/Burundi, Tanzania
Preventing Armed Conflict On The Ethiopia-Somalia BorderElliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Land Tenure, ReparationsThe Government of Puntland ended the pervasive armed conflict on the Ethiopia/Somalia border, minimising the risk of an interstate conflict in future.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-somalia-border/Ethiopia, Somalia
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between Cameroon And NigeriaElliot ShortMediation, Negotiations, Diplomacy: Track 1
A militarised territorial dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria was resolved by the International Court of Justice, the Organisation of African Unity, and the UN helped to ensure the peaceful withdrawal of Nigerian forces from the contested area.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-cameroon-and-nigeria/Cameroon, Nigeria
Keeping The Peace In Somalia (Puntland)Elliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Elections, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
Puntland has enjoyed relative peace while conflict has continued across most of Somalia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-in-somalia-puntland/Somalia
Ending The Armed Conflict Between Communities In Ethiopia And KenyaElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Dialogue, Problem-Solving WorkshopThe 2005-2009 conflict between the Gabra and Borana communities on the Ethiopia/Kenya border was ended, stabilising the frontier, and reducing the likelihood of further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-communities-in-ethiopia-and-kenya/Kenya
Contributing to People's Safety and Peace in Cueibet, South SudanSafeworldIntra-communal conflict In this brief Safer World provides a context update about the current situation in Cueibet –a county in Lakes state in South Sudan. They present safety and security challenges identified by communities, authorities and civil society for all levels of government, and national/international organisations to consider. They also provide recommendations for how best to address the challenges identified such as the easy availability of weapons, cattle raiding, weak justice systems and a lack of security services to turn to.https://www.saferworld.org.uk/resources/publications/1334-contributing-to-peopleas-safety-and-peace-in-cueibet-south-sudanSouth Sudan
Youth and NonViolence in GuineaFrances Fortune, Quentin KanyatsiProject Evaluation, Mediation, Peacemaking, Youth, Conflict PreventionThis evaluation report provides useful information about the intervention in Guinea with clear metrics as to how the project has helped improve the mediation skills of the Youth population and led to better mediation and reduction in violence. There is a particular focus on elections for this project that can offer generalizable knowledge that can be applied to other cases where there is a risk of violence surrounding elections. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12780Guinea
African Peace Processes (APP)ETH ZurichPeace Negotiations DataThe “African Peace Processes (APP)” dataset covers peacemaking efforts in armed conflicts in Africa over the 1989–2019 period. Specifically, the APP dataset identifies rounds of peace negotiations in armed conflicts listed by the Uppsala Conflict Database Program (UCDP). Overall, the data cover more than 2,600 individual peace-​negotiation rounds across 769 conflict-​years in Africa. For each negotiation round, the APP dataset lists the start and end dates, and provides information on the negotiation’s outcome as well as on any third party involved as a mediator.
https://css.ethz.ch/en/research/datasets/african-peace-processes--app-.htmlAfrica
Ending The Armed Conflict In DjiboutiElliot ShortCivil War, Ceasefire, Governance: ConstitutionsA series of peace agreements mediated by the Government of France ended the armed conflict in Djibouti and French peacekeepers helped to verify implementation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-djibouti/Djibouti
Preventing Armed Conflict in GhanaElliot ShortElections, Citizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking InitiativesGhanaian people and organisations worked alongside the government and security services to ensure that the 2008 elections did not spark an armed conflict in Ghana.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/Ghana
Ending The Armed Conflict In Republic Of CongoElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Negotiations, FragilityThe ceasefire and cessation of hostilities agreements ended the Ninja insurgency in the Pool region, while a comprehensive Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration programme has helped to stabilise the area.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-republic-of-congo/Republic of the Congo
Preventing An Interstate Conflict Between South Sudan And SudanElliot ShortReferenda: Independence, Armed Non-State Actors, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
South Sudan and Sudan have maintained relatively peaceful relations for a decade thanks to the mechanisms established following the 2011 referendum.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-an-interstate-conflict-between-south-sudan-and-sudan/Sudan / South Sudan
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Ethiopia-Kenya BorderElliot ShortCitizen Action, Early Warning, Monitoring/Verification: LocalArmed conflict between communities living near the Ethiopia-Kenya border was reduced and the risk of interstate conflict was significantly reduced. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-kenya-border/Ethiopia, Kenya
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nigeria (Southern Plateau State)Elliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: Local, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Inclusive PeacebuildingLocal people and organisations and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue developed a peace declaration that ended the ongoing low-intensity armed conflicts between 56 communities in southern Plateau State, Nigeria.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-southern-plateau-state/Nigeria
Local infrastructures for peace in Guinea-Bissau: The contribution of the Regional Spaces for Dialogue to peacebuildingInter-PeaceCommunications: Public Relations, dialogue, citizen action In 2007, Interpeace and its partner, the national NGO, Voz di Paz (Voice of Peace), established 10 permanent dialogue groups all over the country. By assisting the population in conflict management, these Regional Spaces for Dialogue (RSDs) made a critical contribution to peacebuilding in Guinea-Bissau. Since 2011, they have resolved more than 200 local conflicts by using dialogue as a tool for the peaceful management of conflict related to insecurity, bad governance, religion and violence against women, among other issues. This power to convene such gatherings can be explained by the respect and legitimacy conferred on the local personalities who constitute these RSDs. While rooted in local realities, at the same time, the RSDs represent a community of craftspeople of peace at the national level. Their members have a sense of full ownership of their mission and RSDs objectives. Together, they pursue their engagement with dedication and demonstrate their determination to support, in the long term, their country’s journey to stability and non-violence. https://www.interpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/2015_11_25_Local_Infrastructures_for_Peace_in_Guinea-Bissau.pdfGuinea-Bissau
Ending The Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of CongoElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Ratification: Peace Agreement, Armed Non-State Actors
The Second Congo War (1998-2003) was ended by negotiations hosted by the South African government and the deployment of UN peacekeepershttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo/Democratic Republic of Congo
Ending the Armed Conflict in MozambiqueElliot ShortMediation, PeacemakingNegotiations hosted by the Community of Sant’Egidio in Rome concluded with the signing of the General Peace Agreement, which ended the armed conflict in Mozambique after three decades of near-continuous war.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mozambique/Mozambique
Ending The Armed Conflict In The Republic Of CongoElliot ShortReconcilitation, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Governance: Transition A series of peace agreements mediated by the Government of Gabon brought an end to the armed conflict that engulfed the Republic of Congo during the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-republic-of-congo/Republic of the Congo
Preventing Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of CongoElliot ShortElections, Violence Prevention, Governance: TransititionAn armed conflict was prevented during the 2006 general elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo thanks to the concerted efforts of local people and organisation, the Congolese administration, and donors such as the EU.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo/Democratic Republic of Congo
Ending The Interstate Conflict Between Eritrea And EthiopiaElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Dialogue, PeacekeepingThe war between Eritrea and Ethiopia was ended by mediation efforts led by the Organisation of African Unity during negotiations held in Algeria and the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) to the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-eritrea-and-ethiopia/Eritrea
Ending the Armed Conflict in AngolaElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementAn agreement negotiated by the belligerents ended the conflict in Angola.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-angola/Angola
Ending The Armed Conflict In ComorosElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Agreement
The Organisation of African Unity-led diplomatic intervention helped to end the armed conflict in Comoros after several rounds of talks culminated with the creation of a federal Comorian state.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-comoros/Comoros
Preventing Armed Conflict In The GambiaElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Elections
The deployment of an Economic Community of West African States peacekeeping force has helped The Gambia to prevent a constitutional crisis that from escalating into an armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-the-gambia_2-2/Gambia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Ethiopia (Somali Region)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Mediation, Facilitation
The long-running armed conflict in the Somali Region of Ethiopia was ended by a peace agreement mediated with support from Conciliation Resources.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-ethiopia-somali-region/Ethiopia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Guinea-bissauElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Ceasefire, ElectionsMediation by the CPLP and ECOWAS helped to end the civil war in Guinea-Bissau.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-guinea-bissau/Guinea-Bissau
Evaluation of Search for Common Ground Programming in LiberiaSusan Shepler, Olaide Omideyi, Clementine Lue ClarkProject Evaluation, Mediation, PeacemakingThis evaluation report provides insight into how peace committees, advocacy, and spreading awareness through media can help reduce tensions between communities. The report further offers insights into the impact of financial constraints on peacemaking projects. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5db70e83fc0a966cf4cc42ea/t/5f344ea8f8fcbb7dfed5d227/1597263529886/0344.pdfLiberia
Crisis in Mali: Root Causes and Long-Term SolutionsHannah ArmstrongGovernance: Power Sharing, Violent ExtremismAfter a downfall into statelessness and a loss of control of two-thirds of the territory in 2012, Mali has been in the process of recovery since the French-led intervention. There has been a national consensus that decentralization is the key to enhancing the political power of marginalized localities and improving security in the high-risk northern zone. Decentralization is a long-term strategy that furthers political agency, benefiting both the government and the local collectives, including the northern regions. The strategy’s development and the restoration of legitimate state leadership can protect the fragile state against destabilizing blowback. Yet, it is essential to understand and address the root causes in order to achieve solutions for the long term. For instance, the international focus on counterterrorism and regime change in Mali risks obscuring the long-term political root causes of the current crisis. Peacebuilding efforts must be carefully considered, not only due to the instability and challenges but also because of the increasing politicization of ethnic divisions that might be examined by looking at the root causes. https://www.usip.org/publications/2013/05/crisis-mali-root-causes-and-long-term-solutionsMali
Ending The Armed Conflict In Senegal (Casamance)Elliot ShortMediation, Peace Processes: Implementation, Armed Non-State Actors
Although a final settlement to the conflict is yet to be negotiated, ongoing negotiations hosted by organisations such as the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Community of Sant’Egidio have helped to strengthen a 2014 ceasefire and end the fighting in the Casamance region of Senegal.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-senegal-casamance/Senegal
Nigeria's State Peacebuilding Institutions: Early Success and Continuing Challenges Darren KewLocal Peace Initiatives, Land Tenure, Dialogue, Mediation, Early WarningThis report examines the progress of peace agencies or commissions in three Nigerian states since 2016. It finds that their convening powers and civil society networks offer important opportunities for fostering peace, as does their ability to support the peace architecture of local governments. Over the past five years, three states in Nigeria’s Middle Belt— Plateau, Kaduna, and Adamawa— have created peace agencies or commissions that are tasked with addressing long-standing ethno-religious and other divisions in their host states through direct mediation and other peace interventions; building early warning and early response systems for local conflicts; and, in conjunction with local governments and traditional institutions, developing grassroots conflict resolution infrastructure such as mediation and restorative justice units and processes. All three institutions possess important convening powers to initiate dialogue and larger peace processes. Although the young institutions have faced difficult challenges, they have nonetheless exhibited early promise for stemming violence and insecurity across Nigeria, and their experiences provide important lessons for other states considering similar institutions. Based on more than fifty interviews conducted between 2018 and 2021, the report was supported by the Africa Center at the United States Institute of Peace and the Bureau for Conflict Stabilization Operations at the US Department of State. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12719Nigeria