Case Studies

Case studies

 

These are rigorous efforts to apply evidence to a specific problem, challenge, or conflict.  A case study will focus on the dynamics of a peacebuilding or conflict prevention effort and analyze what worked, what didn’t work, and why.

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TitleAuthorsSubject KeywordsAbstractLinkCountry Name
Mitigating The Impact of Armed Conflict on Civilians in the Philippines Elliot ShortLocal Action, PeacebuildingBy creating and maintaining zones of peace, local people and organisations reduced the impact of armed conflict on the civilian population.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-on-civilians-in-the-philippines/Philippines
Ending The Armed Conflict In SloveniaElliot ShortNegotiations, Ceasefire, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe mediation efforts of the European Community and the deployment of the European Community Monitoring Mission helped to end the armed conflict in Slovenia after ten days of fighting, preventing a much larger conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-slovenia/Slovenia
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Eritrea And YemenElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Mediation, Rule of LawThe immediate threat of armed conflict was ended and the territorial dispute over the Hanish Islands was resolved by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-eritrea-and-yemen/Yemen, Eritrea
Ending The Armed Conflict In NigerElliot ShortDiplomacy, Ceasefire, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The third Tuareg rebellion (2007-2009) in Niger was ended with a peace agreement mediated by the Government of Libya.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-niger-2/Niger
Keeping The Peace In Solomon IslandsElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Elections, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The International Peace Monitoring Team, Peace Monitoring Council, and Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands helped to prevent armed conflict in Solomon Islands after the unrest of 1999-2000.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-in-solomon-islands/Solomon Islands
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Kenya (Wajir)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen action, Dialogue,
Conflict relapses in Wajir County were prevented and armed conflict in the area has been significantly reduced thanks to the maintenance of a peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kenya-wajir/Kenya
Preventing Armed Conflict in NigeriaElliot ShortProblem-Solving Workshop, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations
The National Peace Committee helped to guide Nigeria through its first peaceful elections in history amidst a tense a political climate, preventing an armed conflict.  https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-nigeria/Nigeria
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Indonesia (Central Sulawesi)Elliot ShortElections, Governance: Power Sharing, Violent Extremism
Stability in Central Sulawesi was restored, ending the intercommunal conflict and preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-indonesia-central-sulawesi/Indonesia
Reducing Armed Conflict In “Boendoe”Elliot ShortEarly Warning, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E), Monitoring/Verification: Third PartyThe construction of a local peace infrastructure in the country known as “Boendoe” helped to reduce violence in the area and minimised the risk of an armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-boendoe/Boendoe
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in KyrgyzstanElliot ShortLocally-led peacemaking initiatives, DiplomacyThe measures taken by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and Kyrgyzstani people and organisations helped to prevent political crises and social unrest from escalating into armed conflict in 2010.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kyrgyzstan/Kyrgystan
Preventing Armed Conflict In EstoniaElliot ShortElections, Referenda: Independence, MediationA diplomatic intervention led by the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe helped to avert an armed conflict in Estonia following the collapse of the Soviet Union.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-estonia/Estonia
Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict Between Israel And SyriaElliot ShortCeasefire, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations, PeacekeepingThe United Nations Disengagement Observer Force has helped to prevent renewed war between Israel and Syria since 1974.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-between-israel-and-syria/Syria, Israel
Peacemaking and Constitutional Change: Negotiating Power-sharing Arrangements and Identity Issues: The Republic of (North) Macedonia and The Ohrid Framework AgreementBoshko StankovskiDemocracy and Governance, Conflict PreventionThis study looks at the case of the Republic of Macedonia and the Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA) of 2001, which averted a full-blown civil war, the resulting constitution making process, and the implementation of the constitution. The study highlights the OFA as an important example of a peace agreement that incorporated a policy of multiculturalism at the constitutional level and established a complex power-sharing mechanism between the concerned communities. The Agreement was not only brokered by the international community, but also signed by the EU and the US as its guarantors, therefore classifying the OFA as a type of a hybrid, internationalized and ultimately successful peace agreement. The study analyzes some key aspects of the OFA, such as the dual track approach and the interplay between the political and security component; institutionalization of the process; the role of experts in the negotiations/mediation; and challenges of terminology and constructive ambiguity.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/peacemaking-and-constitutional-change-negotiating-power-sharing-arrangements-and-identity-issues-the-republic-of-north-macedonia-and-the-ohrid-framework-agreementNorth Macedonia
Preventing Armed Conflict In Solomon IslandsElliot ShortCeasefire, Governance: Reforms, Peace Processes: Implementation
Negotiations facilitated by the Commonwealth and the Government of Australia combined with the deployment of an international monitoring mission and the creation of a peace infrastructure to prevent intercommunal violence from escalating into war in Solomon Islands in 2000.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-solomon-islands/Solomon Islands
Stopping The Armed Conflict In The Central African Republic For Four YearsElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Ratification: Peace Agreement
The conflict in the Central African Republic was stopped for four years by a diplomatic intervention by regional governments and the deployment of a monitoring mission followed by a UN peacekeeping missionhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-for-four-years/Central African Republic
Keeping the Peace in CyprusElliot ShortPeacekeepingThe United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus has worked to keep the peace between the Turkish-held north and the rest of Cyprus since 1964.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-on-cyprus/Cyprus
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Assam)Elliot ShortMigration and Conflict, Ceasefire, Peace ProcessA gradual peace process has reduced the scale of the armed conflict in Assam while negotiations involving local people and organisations, several layers of the Indian government, and Assamese armed groups are being held.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-assam/India
Ending The Armed Conflict In Philippines (Mindanao – Milf)Elliot ShortMulti-Track Diplomacy, Governance:Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Third PartyLengthy negotiations mediated by the International Contact Group (composed of four governments and four NGOS), supported by international monitoring missions and local peace infrastructure, helped to end the armed conflict on Mindanao. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philippines-mindanao-milf/Philippines
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in Albania
Elliot ShortPeacekeeping , Political MissionThe Multinational Protection Force and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe Presence in Albania helped to restore order, monitored the border with Kosovo, and mediated a peaceful end to an attempted coup d’état in 1998https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-albania/Albania
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Chad And LibyaElliot ShortMediation, Rule of Law, Monitoring/Verification: United NationsFollowing the International Court of Justice’s judgement of the dispute, the United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group monitored the withdrawal of Libyan troops from the area and helped ensure that the handover of the disputed territory to Chad went ahead peacefully.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-chad-and-libya/Chad, Libya
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Bosnia And HerzegovinaElliot ShortRule of Law, Peace Agreement, PeacekeepingThe legal prosecution of political and military leaders who posed a threat to peace, the deployment of NATO and later EU peacekeepers, and the work of Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and EU advisory and monitoring missions has helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Bosnia and Herzegovina.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina/Bosnia and Herzegovina
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in Kosovo
Elliot ShortPeacekeeping , TransitionA North Atlantic Treaty Organisation peacekeeping force, a UN transitional administration, and a political mission from the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe have successfully helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Kosovo since 1999. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kosovo/Kosovo
Ending The Conflict In Sudan (South Sudan)Elliot ShortReferenda: Independence, Governance: Power Sharing, NegotiationsThe 50-year conflict between northern and southern Sudan was ended by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which paved the way for South Sudanese independence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-conflict-in-sudan-south-sudan/Sudan
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In GuatemalaElliot ShortPeace Processes: Implementation, Governance: Reforms, Human RightsThe United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala ensured the ceasefire held and disarmed combatants, in addition to guaranteeing a relatively safe and secure environment for elections to take place alongside EU and Organisation of American States observers, preventing a conflict relapse in Guatemala.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-guatemala/Guatemala
Peace Process Support in Times of Crises: The National Dialogue Support Programme in Yemen 2014-16Oliver Wils, Sonja NeuweilerConflict Management and Resolution, DialogueThis report details the work of the National Dialogue Support Programme (NDSP) in Yemen during the period of 2014-16. It provides the analysis from the perspective of the Berghof Foundation which was Originally set up in 2012, the NDSP provided process, facilitation and logistical support, negotiation and dialogue trainings, as well as analysis papers, coaching and public education materials to the National Dialogue Conference (NDC). The NDSP was actually run by the Berghof Foundation in collaboration with Political Development Forum Yemen. The National Dialogue Support Programme's aim was to strengthen and protect the political transition process by supporting locally-owned and inclusive structures and mechanisms for political dialogue, informed decision-making and trust- and consensus-building. Yet, at the same time it had to respond to the political dynamics in Yemen which changed dramatically - and at times very quickly- between February 2014 and December 2016. This report presents many of the lessons learned, particularly about the coordination of a dialogue facilitation process in conjunction with a high-level political process. It also explores how the dialogue process incorporated informal dialogues and local level peacebuilding.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/peace-process-support-in-times-of-crises-the-national-dialogue-support-programme-in-yemen-2014-16Yemen
Ending The Armed Conflict In Senegal (Casamance)Elliot ShortMediation, Peace Processes: Implementation, Armed Non-State Actors
Although a final settlement to the conflict is yet to be negotiated, ongoing negotiations hosted by organisations such as the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Community of Sant’Egidio have helped to strengthen a 2014 ceasefire and end the fighting in the Casamance region of Senegal.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-senegal-casamance/Senegal
Keeping The Peace In Somalia (Puntland)Elliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Elections, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
Puntland has enjoyed relative peace while conflict has continued across most of Somalia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-in-somalia-puntland/Somalia
Preventing Armed Conflict In TunisiaElliot ShortCitizen Action, Governance: Constitutions, MediationThe National Dialogue Quartet, a consortium of four major Tunisian civil society organisations, helped to prevent armed conflict and guide their country on a peaceful course in the wake of the 2011 Jasmine Revolution.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-tunisia/Tunisia
Resolving The Militarised Border Dispute Between Guinea-Bissau And SenegalElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Rule of Law, War Prevention
French diplomacy helped to prevent border clashes from escalating while the arbitration of the ICJ resolved the territorial dispute between the two countries.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-border-dispute-between-guinea-bissau-and-senegal/Guinea-Bissau, Senegal
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nigeria (Southern Plateau State)Elliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: Local, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Inclusive PeacebuildingLocal people and organisations and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue developed a peace declaration that ended the ongoing low-intensity armed conflicts between 56 communities in southern Plateau State, Nigeria.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-southern-plateau-state/Nigeria
Ending The Interstate Conflict Between Eritrea And EthiopiaElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Dialogue, PeacekeepingThe war between Eritrea and Ethiopia was ended by mediation efforts led by the Organisation of African Unity during negotiations held in Algeria and the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) to the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-eritrea-and-ethiopia/Eritrea
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Mali-Niger-Burkina Faso International BorderElliot ShortMediation, Reconciliation, Peace Processes: ImplementationThe Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue has worked with the governments of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to reduce armed conflict in the frontier region where their respective international borders meet.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-mali-niger-burkina-faso-international-border/Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso
Preventing Interstate Conflict Between Djibouti And EritreaElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party, Ratification: Peace Agreement
A low-intensity interstate conflict between Djibouti and Eritrea was prevented from escalating into a major war thanks to the mediation efforts of the Government of Qatar and the deployment of a Qatari peacekeeping mission.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-djibouti-and-eritrea/Djibouti, Eritrea
Ending The Interstate Conflict Between Ecuador And PeruElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Peace Processes: Implementation, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe mediation of four regional governments (the Guarantors of the Rio De Janeiro Protocol) led by Brazil ended the interstate conflict between Ecuador and Peru in 1995 after just over one month of fighting.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-ecuador-and-peru/Ecuador
Preventing Armed Conflict In Russia (Dagestan)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Governance: Power Sharing, Inclusive Peacebuilding
Traditional methods of political organisation have helped prevent armed conflict in the Republic of Dagestan during the unrest and instability that has marked life in much of the Caucasus in the post-Soviet period.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-russia-dagestan/Russia
Locally Led Peacebuiliding: A Case Study of a Chieftency Dispute in the Brong Ahafo Region of GhanaPurdue Peace ProjectLocal peacebuiliding, community disputeLocally led peacebuilding, also referred to as locally driven peacebuilding, is a move to recognize that those who are directly affected by conflict should drive peacebuilding efforts. This white paper responds to calls for more data-driven exemplars of locally driven peacebuilding. It does so by presenting as a case study the work of the Purdue Peace Project (PPP) in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana to help prevent violence related to a long-standing chieftaincy dispute.https://www.cla.purdue.edu/ppp/documents/publications/locallyledpeacebuilding2018.pdfGhana
Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict Between Israel and Jordan Elliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementThe mediation efforts of the Government of USA ended the state of war between Israel and Jordan that had existed for 46 years, greatly reducing the risk of further interstate conflict and stabilising the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-between-israel-and-jordan/Jordan
Ending The Armed Conflict In Republic Of CongoElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Negotiations, FragilityThe ceasefire and cessation of hostilities agreements ended the Ninja insurgency in the Pool region, while a comprehensive Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration programme has helped to stabilise the area.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-republic-of-congo/Republic of the Congo
Ending The Armed Conflict In Indonesia (Central Sulawesi)Elliot ShortReligion and Conflict, Peacekeeping, NegotiationsThe intercommunal violence in Central Sulawesi was ended by an Indonesian military deployment and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-central-sulawesi/Indonesia
Reducing Armed Conflict In The Horn Of Africa With Peace InfrastructureElliot ShortEarly Warning, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Conflict Prevention

The Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism established by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development has used data, technology, and a decentralised network of people and organisations to build an effective early warning system that has demonstrably reduced armed conflict across the Horn of Africa.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-the-horn-of-africa-with-peace-infrastructure/Horn of Africa
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In NepalElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Governance: Transition, Peace Processes: ImplementationThe United Nations Mission in Nepal worked with local people and organisations to ensure that the peace process stayed on track while facilitating the Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration and military integration process, preventing a conflict relapse in Nepal.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-nepal/Nepal
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in CroatiaElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Transition, MonitoringThe United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation, United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka, and United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Croatia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-croatia/Croatia
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Tripura)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Ceasefire, Governance: Power SharingThe armed conflict in Tripura between the Indian government and Tripuri armed groups was ended by a series of negotiated settlements with several armed opposition groups and the stabilisation of the international border.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-tripura/India
Ending The Armed Conflict In The Philipinnes (Soldiers Of The Filipino People/young Officers’ Union/revolutionary Nationalist Alliance)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Dialogue, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
A peace agreement mediated by an agency of the Government of the Philippines ended the repeated efforts of the Soldiers of the Filipino People, the Young Officers’ Union, and the Revolutionary Nationalist Alliance factions of the military to seize power with forcehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-philipinnes-soldiers/Philippines
Ending The Armed Conflict In Indonesia (Maluku)Elliot ShortViolence Prevention, Peacekeeping, CeasefireThe armed conflict in Maluku was ended by an Indonesian military operation and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-maluku/Indonesia
Preventing An Interstate Conflict During The Diplomatic Crisis With IranElliot ShortSanctions, Diplomacy, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party
Ongoing international dialogue with the Government of Iran and the diplomatic initiatives of the EU3 and P5+1 helped to prevent the ongoing Iranian diplomatic crisis from escalating into an interstate armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-an-interstate-conflict-during-the-diplomatic-crisis-with-iran/Iran
Ending The Armed Conflict In Philippines (Revolutionary Workers’ Party -Mindanao)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Peace Processes: Implementation, CeasefireNegotiations mediated by the local NGO Balay Mindanaw stopped the fighting between the Revolutionary Workers’ Party – Mindanao and the Government of Philippines in 2005 and ongoing efforts, although unable to produce a peace agreement, have prevented further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philippines-revolutionary-workers-party-mindanao/Philippines
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Honduras And NicaraguaElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Rule of LawThe Organisation of American States helped to prevent a territorial dispute between Honduras and Nicaragua from escalating into armed conflict while the International Court of Justice investigated the case and resolved the dispute peacefully.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-honduras-and-nicaragua/Honduras, Nicaragua
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Mizoram)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Peace Process, Multi-Track Diplomacy
The armed conflicts in Mizoram, India, were ended after a lengthy negotiation process between armed groups and the Government of India.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-mizoram/India
Ending the Armed Conflict in GuatemalaElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementNegotiations mediated by the UN resulted in the signing of the Accord for a Firm and Lasting Peace in 1996, ending the armed conflict in Guatemala after 36 years. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-guatemala/Guatemala
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In ComorosElliot ShortElections, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organizationm, DialogueOngoing negotiations and the deployment of Organisation of African Unity/African Union observer missions and a military operation helped to ensure that Comoros did not experience a conflict relapse. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-comoros/Comoros
Ending Armed Conflict In The Uk (Northern Ireland)Elliot ShortPeace Agreement, Negotiations, Diplomacy: Track 1Negotiations mediated by the Government of USA resulted in the signing of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement/Belfast Agreement, which ended almost three decades of armed conflict and intercommunal violence in Northern Ireland. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-armed-conflict-in-the-uk-northern-ireland/Northern Ireland
Preventing Armed Conflict In The GambiaElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Elections
The deployment of an Economic Community of West African States peacekeeping force has helped The Gambia to prevent a constitutional crisis that from escalating into an armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-the-gambia_2-2/Gambia
Preventing Armed Conflict In France (New Caledonia)Elliot ShortMediation, Governance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations
A series of peace agreements mediated by the French government and the ongoing supervision of the UN Special Committee on Decolonisation has ensured that the debate over the future of New Caledonia has not escalated into armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-france-new-caledonia/France
Preventing Interstate Conflict In The Great LakesElliot ShortPeace Processes: Strategies, Diplomacy: Track 1, Conflict Prevention
After being established by the African Union and the UN, the ICGLR has prevented further interstate conflict in the Great Lakes since 2003.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-in-the-great-lakes/Great Lakes
Preventing Armed Conflict In KenyaElliot ShortReconciliation, Elections, Citizen ActionElectoral violence in Kenya was prevented from escalating into armed conflict by the efforts of local people and organisations and the African Union’s Panel of Eminent Personalities, which led the talks which produced the National Accord and Reconciliation Acthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-kenya/Kenya
Preventing Armed Conflict In The Caspian SeaElliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Negotiations, Economics and ConflictAn interstate conflict between Iran and Azerbaijan was prevented and the risk of war between any of the littoral states on the Caspian Sea was demonstrably reduced.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-the-caspian-sea/The Caspian Sea
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Djibouti And EritreaElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Ratification: Peace Agreement, SanctionsThe militarised territorial dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea was prevented from escalating in 2017 by the timely diplomatic intervention of the African Union and was ultimately resolved after the Government of Saudi Arabia mediated a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-djibouti-and-eritrea/Djibouti, Eritrea
Preventing A Conflict Relapse Between Iraq And KuwaitElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Conflict Prevention, Monitoring/Verification: United NationsUN peacekeepers helped to prevent further hostilities between Kuwait and Iraq after the First Gulf War.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-between-iraq-and-kuwait/Iraq / Kuwait
Ending The Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of CongoElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Ratification: Peace Agreement, Armed Non-State Actors
The Second Congo War (1998-2003) was ended by negotiations hosted by the South African government and the deployment of UN peacekeepershttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo/Democratic Republic of Congo
Strategic thinking and conflict transformation: A reflection on and from the Basque CountryUrko Aiartza AzurtzaConflict Management and Resolution, Peacebuilding and PeacemakingThe disarmament and dissolution of the Basque separatist group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, better known under its acronym ETA, is a unique example of a creative and unilateral transition to end armed conflict. After the collapse of the negotiation process between the Spanish government and ETA in 2006, an internal debate within the Basque pro-independence movement led to a change of strategy. The new direction eventually resulted in the disarmament and dissolution of ETA in May 2018. How did it come about and what lessons can be drawn from this case for other conflicts? This report looks at these questions in detail, based on in-depth interviews with actors who took part in this democratic transition process as well as on the direct involvement and experiences of the author himself.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/strategic-thinking-and-conflict-transformation-a-reflection-on-and-from-the-basque-countrySpain
Ending the Armed Conflict in Papua New Guinea (Bougainville)Elliot ShortPeacekeeping, Monitoring, MediationThe armed conflict in Bougainville was ended after a decade of fighting by the deployment of a series of regionally led peacekeeping missions and negotiations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-papua-new-guinea-bougainville/Papua New Guinea
Containing The Armed Conflict In Georgia-(South Ossetia) For 16 YearsElliot ShortMediation, Peacekeeping, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe armed conflict in South Ossetia was contained between 1992 and 2008 by the deployment of a regional peacekeeping mission.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-georgia-south-ossetia-for-16-years/Georgia
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between China And Russia/Soviet UnionElliot ShortNegotiations, Dialogue, Ratification: Peace AgreementThe long-standing border dispute between China and Russia (which almost sparked a war in the 1960s) was resolved, dramatically reducing the chance of an interstate conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-china-and-russia-soviet-union/China, Russia/Soviet Union
Ending The Armed Conflict In ComorosElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Agreement
The Organisation of African Unity-led diplomatic intervention helped to end the armed conflict in Comoros after several rounds of talks culminated with the creation of a federal Comorian state.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-comoros/Comoros
Resolving the Militarised Territorial Dispute between Bahrain and QatarElliot ShortDiplomacy, ArbitrationThe longstanding militarised territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar regarding the Hawar Islands was prevented by the diplomatic intervention of the Government of Saudi Arabia and resolved by the International Court of Justice in 2001.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-bahrain-and-qatar/Qatar
Ending The Armed Conflict In Philipinnes (Mindanao – Mnlf)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Inclusive PeacebuildingNegotiations mediated by the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) and the governments of Indonesia and Libya, and supported by an OIC Joint Ceasefire Commission, ended the armed conflict between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philipinnes-mindanao-mnlf/Philippines
The “Do No Harm” Framework for Analyzing the Impact of Assistance on Conflict: A Handbook.CDA Collaborative Learning ProjectsProgram Evaluation, Conflict Resolution, AidAlthough it is clear that, by itself, assistance neither causes nor can end conflict, it can be a significant factor in conflict contexts. Assistance can have important effects on intergroup relations and on the course of intergroup conflict. In a DNH IMPLEMENTATION PROJECT area, for example, one NGO provided 90% of all local employment in a sizable region over a number of years. In another, the NGO estimated that militia looting of assistance garnered US $400 million in one brief (and not unique) rampage. Both of these examples occurred in very poor countries where assistance's resources represented significant wealth and power. At the same time, giving no assistance would also have an impact—often negative. The DNH has thus chosen to focus on how to provide assistance more effectively and how those of us who are involved in providing assistance in conflict areas can assume responsibility and hold ourselves accountable for the effects that our assistance has in worsening and prolonging, or in reducing and shortening, destructive conflict between groups whom we want to help. The DO NO HARM “Analytical Framework” was developed from the programming experience of many assistance workers. It provides a tool for mapping the interactions of assistance and conflict and can be used to plan, monitor and evaluate both humanitarian and development assistance programmes. The Framework is NOT prescriptive. It is a descriptive tool that: 1) identifies the categories of information that have been found through experience to be important for understanding how assistance affects conflict; 2) organizes these categories in a visual lay-out that highlights their actual and potential relationships; and 3) helps us predict the impacts of different programming decisions.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12715Worldwide
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between Botswana And NamibiaElliot ShortNegotiation, Mediation, Ratification: Peace AgreementThe territorial dispute between Botswana and Namibia, the result of an 1890 treaty between Germany and the UK, was peacefully resolved by the arbitration of the International Court of Justice in 1999 after a series of border clashes.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-botswana-and-namibia/Botswana, Namibia
Resolving the Militarised Territorial Dispute between Cambodia and Thailand Elliot ShortDiplomacy, Arbitration, Monitoring and VerificationRegional diplomacy led by ASEAN and arbitration by the ICJ resolved the militarised territorial dispute between Cambodia and Thailand which threatened to escalate into a major interstate conflict following border clashes in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-cambodia-and-thailand/Cambodia
Preventing Armed Conflict In Ghana (Kingdom Of Dagbon)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Identity and Conflict, Governance: Power Sharing
A war between rival claimants to the throne of the Kingdom of Dagbon in Northern Ghana was prevented by a Ghanaian military intervention and the mediation of a peace agreement after sixteen years of talks.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana-kingdom-of-dagbonauto/Ghana
Ending The Armed Conflict In South SudanElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Agreement
The mediation efforts of a wide range of international actors and the protestations of the Pope helped to end the armed conflict in South Sudan in 2018.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-sudan/South Sudan
Confronting War: Critical Lessons for Peace Practitioners
Mary B. Anderson, Lara Olson, Kristin DoughtyPeace Processes, Inclusion, Do No HarmThis working paper reflects the work and lessons learned from the Reflecting on Peace Practice Project. Over an eighteen month period, RPP conducted twenty-six case studies on a wide variety of types of peace efforts, undertaken in a range of geographical settings, in different stages of conflict, at different levels of society, and with varying forms of connectedness to local, indigenous peace efforts. These case studies were done at the invitation of the agencies involved, to capture their internal reflections on their work, as well as the views of a wide range of counterparts – participants, partnering local and international NGOs and other agencies, communities affected by the work, representatives of relevant levels of government, etc. The cases were conducted through field visits to the areas where the programs were undertaken. There were also a series of consultations bringing together more than eighty peace practitioners—both those who live in conflict situations and those who work outside their own countries. These practitioners reviewed and reflected on lessons that emerged from the cases were telling us. A number of issues emerged as central to effective peace practice but around which there remain significant differences of experience and belief. These linkages between levels in peace work, the roles and relationships between “insider” and “outsider” peace agencies, and the relationship between context analysis and strategy development. Additional areas of focus included tradeoffs between working for the reduction of violence and for social justice, dealing with deliberate disruptions of peace processes, and assessing Inadvertent negative impacts. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12714Worldwide
Ending The Armed Conflict In Mali (Second Tuareg Rebellion)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, War PreventionMediation by the Government of Algeria resulted in a ceasefire, allowing local people and organisations in Mali to participate in a peace process which ended the Second Tuareg Rebellion in the early 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mali-second-tuareg-rebellion/Mali
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nigeria (Kaduna State)Elliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Facilitation, DialogueThe efforts of local people and organisations, the local administration, and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue helped to bring 29 communities affected by armed conflict together and create a peace agreement and an infrastructure to support and monitor implementation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-kaduna-state/Nigeria
Ending Armed Conflict In CambodiaElliot ShortMediation, Peace Agreement, Governance: Power SharingAn October 1991 peace agreement formally ended the armed conflict in Cambodia after decades of devastation, war, and genocide.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-armed-conflict-in-cambodia/Cambodia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Uganda (West Nile)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Amnesty, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The ongoing insurgency in northern Uganda was ended with a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-uganda-west-nile/Uganda
Reducing Armed Conflict In India (Manipur)Elliot ShortPeace Processes: Implementation, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State ActorsThe level of armed conflict taking place in the complex social and military environment of Manipur has been reduced thanks to a gradual peace process led by the Indian government.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-india-manipur/India
Ending the Armed Conflict in Indonesia (Aceh)Elliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementNegotiations mediated by the Crisis Management Initiative resulted in the Helsinki Agreement, which brought an end to the armed conflict in the Indonesian province of Acehhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-aceh/Indonesia
Containing The Armed Conflict In Western SaharaElliot ShortPeacekeeping,Governance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: United NationsThe United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara has helped to prevent renewed armed conflict in Western Sahara since 1991. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-western-sahara/Western Sahara
Ending The Armed Conflict In Russia (Chechnya)Elliot ShortViolent Extremism, Governance: Power Sharing, CeasefireThe diplomatic manoeuvrings of the Government of Russia ended the war in Chechnya after a decade of conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-russia-chechnya/Russia
Ending The Armed Conflict In NicaraguaElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations, Mediation A series of peace agreements mediated by regional governments and the deployment of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America helped to end the armed conflict in Nicaragua in 1990.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nicaragua/Nicaragua
Reducing Armed Conflict in Sudan (South Kordofan)Elliot ShortLocally-led peacemaking initiatives, FacilitationPeace Committees created with support from the NGO Peace Direct conducted at least 32 successful interventions to prevent relatively minor disputes from escalating into armed conflict in South Kordofan, Sudan.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-sudan-south-kordofan/Sudan
Containing The Armed Conflict In Moldova (Transnistria)Elliot ShortPeacekeeping, MediationThe peacekeeping efforts of the Joint Control Commission and ongoing talks mediated by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe has helped to prevent renewed conflict between the Government of Moldova and the administration of the breakaway republic in Transnistria.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-moldova-transnistria/Moldova
Mitigating The Impact Of Armed Conflict In ColombiaElliot ShortHuman Rights, Problem-Solving Workshop, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
Peace communities created by local people caught in the crossfire during the armed conflict in Colombia (and accompanied by Peace Brigades International since 1997) have helped to mitigate the impact of the fighting on civilians.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-in-colombia/Colombia
Preventing an Armed Conflict in HaitiElliot ShortPeacekeeping The United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti helped to prevent armed conflict from erupting in Haiti in 2004 after a severe constitutional crisis.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-haiti/Haiti
Ending The Armed Conflict In Ghana (Northern Region)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: Local, Economics and Conflict
The Guinea Fowl War in the Northern Region of Ghana was ended by the deployment of troops and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-ghana-northern-region/Ghana
Ending The Armed Conflict In Sierra LeoneElliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Rule of Law, CeasefireThe war in Sierra Leone was ended and constitutional rule was re-established by a British military intervention in support of a UN peacekeeping mission after over a decade of conflict and devastation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-sierra-leone/Sierra Leone
Reducing Armed Conflict In GhanaElliot ShortMediation, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen ActionArmed conflict across Ghana has been reduced by the construction and maintenance of a comprehensive peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/Ghana
Land and Conflict: Toolkit for Preventing and Managing Land and Natural Resources ConflictUnited Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventive ActionNatural Resources, Land Tenure, Conflict PreventionBecause the management of land and natural resources is one of the most critical challenges facing developing countries today, this field guide is intended to help build the capacity of national stakeholders, the UN system and the European Union prevent land and natural resources from contributing to violent conflict. This guide focuses on critical concepts related to land and natural resource tenure, strategies for addressing land grievances and conflict, a framework for international action, appropriate conflict management tools and approaches, and post-conflict strategies. 14 cases studies are also included. The guide focuses on the exploitation of high-value natural resources, including oil, gas, minerals and timber which has often been cited as a key factor in triggering, escalating or sustaining violent conflicts around the globe. Furthermore, increasing competition over diminishing renewable resources, such as land and water, are on the rise. This is being further aggravated by environmental degradation, population growth and climate change. The mismanagement of land and natural resources is contributing to new conflicts and obstructing the peaceful resolution of existing ones. Land and natural resource issues are almost never the sole cause of conflict. Land conflicts commonly become violent when linked to wider processes of political exclusion, social discrimination, economic marginalization, and a perception that peaceful action is no longer a viable strategy for change. Land issues readily lend themselves to conflict because land is an important economic asset and source of livelihoods and it is also closely linked to community identity, history and culture. Addressing land grievances and conflicts is fundamental to creating sustainable peace, so international assistance should prioritize the early and sustained engagement in land issues as part of a broader conflict prevention strategy. Such early attention can reduce the human, economic, social, environmental costs of conflict.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12717Worldwide
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Qatar And Saudi ArabiaElliot ShortMediation, Ratification: Peace Agreement, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party
The territorial dispute between Qatar and Saudi was resolved, preventing an interstate conflict from erupting over the contested territory.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-qatar-and-saudi-arabia/Qatar, Saudi Arabia
Reducing Armed Conflict Across Nigeria (Middle Belt)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: Local, Migration and Conflict

The development of a peace infrastructure across the Middle Belt of Nigeria has helped to reduce armed conflict and prevent electoral violence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-nigeria-middle-belt/Nigeria
Ending The Proxy Conflict Between Chad And SudanElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy: Track 1, Peace Processes: Implementation
A peace agreement mediated by the Government of Senegal helped to end years of proxy conflict between the governments of Chad and Sudan and reduce the risk of a major interstate conflict between them.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-proxy-conflict-between-chad-and-sudan/Sudan
Ending The Armed Conflict In The Philippines (Cordillera)Elliot ShortCeasefire, Governance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: LocalThe peace process between the Government of the Philippines and the Cordillera People’s Liberation Army that began in 1986 reached a formal peace agreement in 2011 which continues to be implemented with oversight from a monitoring committee.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-philippines-cordillera/Philippines
Ending The Armed Conflict In CroatiaElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Peacekeeping, Ceasefire
The Contact Group (composed of Russia, EU, USA, and UN) successfully mediated the negotiation of the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, which ended the armed conflict in Croatia during the collapse of Yugoslavia.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-croatia/Croatia
Resolving the Militarised Territorial Dispute between Cambodia and Thailand Elliot ShortDiplomacy, Arbitration, Monitoring and VerificationRegional diplomacy led by ASEAN and arbitration by the ICJ resolved the militarised territorial dispute between Cambodia and Thailand which threatened to escalate into a major interstate conflict following border clashes in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-cambodia-and-thailand/Thailand
Ending the Armed Conflict in ColombiaElliot ShortDiplomacy, MediationThe armed conflict in Colombia was finally ended after 52 years by the signing of a peace agreement during negotiations mediated by a host of national governments and intergovernmental organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-colombia/Colombia
Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict On The Korean PeninsulaElliot ShortCeasefire, Diplomacy, Monitoring/Verification: LocalThe Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the Military Armistice Committee helped to contain the armed conflict between North and South Korea for over four decades, playing a key role in implementing the terms of the 1953 Armistice and monitoring adherence to them by both signatories.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-on-the-korean-peninsula/Korean Peninsula
Ensuring That The Collapse Of The Soviet Union Remained PeacefulElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Preventive DiplomacyA potentially volatile collapse of the Soviet Union took place peacefully thanks to the measured response of the Soviet leadership and the presence of international mechanisms that prevented instability and uncertainty from escalating into armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ensuring-that-the-collapse-of-the-soviet-union-remained-peaceful/Russia
Reducing Armed Conflict In MaliElliot ShortMediation, Peace Processes: Implementation, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party

The Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue has facilitated a series of successful peace processes between communities in Mali, helping them to negotiate peace agreements and build mechanisms to prevent further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-mali/Mali
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In South AfricaElliot ShortDialogue, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
The deployment of monitoring missions by the Commonwealth, EU, Organisation of African Unity, and the UN helped to prevent violence during the 1994 elections and ensured that South Africa did not experience a conflict relapse after the transition from apartheid.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-south-africa/South Africa
Building Just Societies: Reconciliation in Transitional SettingsEnrique Sánchez and Sylvia RognvikReconciliation, Citizen Action, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E)
Reconciliation is a key objective in building sustainable peace and preventing a relapse into conflict. It is about (re) building relationships among people and groups in society and between the state and its citizens. The process is highly context sensitive, and each society has to tailor its approach to the nature of the conflict and the character of the transition. The reconciliation workshop held in Accra, Ghana in June 2012 gathered practitioners and experts from past and current reconciliation processes to share experiences in a practitioner dialogue and to inform future strategies and actions on reconciliation. It was a collaboration between the UN Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO), the Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre (NOREF) and the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC), and focused on lessons learned and good practices in thematic areas within reconciliation such as healing; the relation- ship between truth, justice and reconciliation; reparation; reconciliation efforts at different levels and how they are connected to one another; and the role of the international community.https://www.un.org/peacebuilding/sites/www.un.org.peacebuilding/files/documents/12-58492_feb13.pdfGhana
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Costa Rica And NicaraguaElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Rule of Law, DialogueA diplomatic intervention by the Organisation of American States prevented an armed conflict between Costa Rica and Nicaragua from erupting in 2010 and the International Court of Justice peacefully resolved the dispute in 2018.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-costa-rica-and-nicaragua/Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In El SalvadorElliot ShortPeace Agreement, Ceasefire, Governance: Transition
The United Nations Observer Group in El Salvador and the United Nations Mission in El Salvador verified the implementation of a ceasefire, contributed to stabilising the country, and strengthened the fragile institutions, preventing a conflict relapse in El Salvadorhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-comoros/El Salvador
Preventing Armed Conflict in MalawiElliot ShortDialogue, Facilitation, Preventive DiplomacyA timely diplomatic intervention by the UN helped to prevent an ongoing political crisis in Malawi from escalating into armed conflict in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-malawi/Malawi
Ending The Armed Conflict In SpainElliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Ceasefire
The work of international NGOs helped to end the conflict between the Government of Spain and the Basque separatist movement, ETA.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-spain/Spain
Preventing Armed Conflict in LesothoElliot ShortDialogue, Peacekeeping, ElectionsThe Southern African Development Committee Preventive Mission in Lesotho helped to maintain stability during a period of severe political crisis in Lesotho, preventing an armed conflict from erupting in 2017.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-lesotho/Lesotho
Preventing Armed Conflict In GuineaElliot ShortNegotiations, Elections, Governance: Transition
Thanks to timely diplomatic action by the African Union, Economic Community of West African States, and the UN, a violent political crisis in Guinea was prevented from escalating into armed conflict in 2009.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guinea/Guinea
Preventing Armed Conflict in MadagascarElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Peace Processes: Implementation, ElectionsA political crisis which verged on the brink of sparking a civil war in Madagascar was prevented from escalating by an effective international diplomatic intervention and the mediation of a peace agreement by the Southern African Development Community.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-madagascar/Madagascar
Preventing an interstate conflict between Colombia, Ecuador, and VenezuelaElliot ShortDiplomacyA war between Colombia and Ecuador, which was likely to have drawn in Venezuela as well, was avoided with the help of a diplomatic intervention from the Organisation of American States and the Rio Group.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-colombia-and-ecuador-and-venezuela/Colombia
Powers of Persuasion: Incentives, Sanctions and Conditionality in PeacemakingAaron Griffiths, Catherine BarnesPeacemaking, SanctionsThis report is the result of a project that analyzed the use of sanctions, incentives and conditionality from the standpoint of whether they underpin or undermine peace processes (ie the formal and informal processes of dialogue and negotiation between the parties that aim to address their conflict). Used effectively, it seems that these policy tools can tip the balance towards settlement by increasing the costs of fighting and the rewards for making peace. There is often an assumption that such tools have the potential to induce parties to participate in negotiations and encourage them to reach and implement peace agreements. Yet many of the cases in this study reveal how these policy tools have been ineffective or even ‘done harm’ in exacerbating tensions and fueling conflict dynamics. Four overriding conclusions can be drawn from this study for how to enhance the effectiveness of external influence in support of peacemaking. (1) External actors need to prioritize support for sustainable peace as their primary goal in a conflict situation and craft their strategy to help achieve it – recognizing that this may, in turn, create the enabling conditions for achieving other foreign policy goals. (2) Sanctions, incentives and conditionality are most likely to be effective when they are responsive to the parties’ own motivational structures and support a pre-existing societal dynamic for conflict resolution. (3) They need to be designed and implemented in ways that help to create momentum in the resolution process, which (4) typically requires a degree of strategic coherence amongst external actors, necessitating mechanisms for coordination.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12746Worldwide
Bringing Stability to SomaliaElliot ShortLocal Peace Initiative, Conflict PreventionMost of north-east Somalia was spared from the conflicts and famines of the 1990s thanks to the efforts of local people and organisations in Puntland to reduce armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/bringing-stability-to-somalia/Somalia
Ending The Armed Conflict In SurinameElliot ShortGovernance: Reforms, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe mediation of a peace agreement and the deployment of a monitoring mission to verify implementation of its terms by the Organisation of American States ended the armed conflict in Suriname.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-suriname/Suriname
War Prevention Works: 50 Stories Of People Resolving ConflictDylan MathewsTraining, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Dialogue The editors of this book have brought together a collection of stories about how local communities participate in transforming conflicts that have been destroying the lifeways of their society. Offering concrete evidence of what is possible, these stories need to be read and pondered by politicians, civic activists and policy makers.
Each story is unique, yet common threads appear in the pattern of the activities described. They include the following: the creation of special listening spaces, whether by national leaders or by local activists, women's groups, faith groups or elders, spaces where stories of suffering are shared with the feared or hated ‘other’; the rediscovery of traditional patterns of restitution and reconciliation, with women's groups and elders often playing key roles; helpful training in the skills of dialogue by friendly outsiders, and accompanying mobilization of the community's learning and service resources; networking among an ever-widening circle of affected communities, and careful involvement of locals with regional and national leaders and elites.
https://www.peacedirect.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2011/01/War-Prevention-Works.pdfWorldwide
Ending The Armed Conflict In NepalElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations, Ratification: Constitution
Nepalese political parties worked together with widespread public support to find a political solution to the ongoing armed conflict in Nepal and mediate the negotiation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which brought an end to a decade of war and created the framework for a lasting peace.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nepal/Nepal
Interactions Between Peacemaking and Constitution-Making Processes in Burundi: A Stabilising or a Crisis Factor?Willy Peter NindoreraDemocracy and Governance, Conflict PreventionThis study analyzes the regional mediation process of the Arusha Accords in Burundi. The process, first chaired by president of Tanzania Nyerere and then by Nelson Mandela, lasted for over two years and led to very comprehensive and detailed peace agreements. Constitutional reforms followed and were, to a large extent, directly implemented provisions from the Arusha Accords after another complicated negotiations process which required further mediation by South Africa. This case suggests that while the process has managed to end the civil war, it lacks legitimacy and it has not led to democratic governance. The case study also analyzes the role of ethnicity in peace processes, the impact of different mediation styles, the limitations of power sharing agreements, and the challenges of transforming rebel groups into political parties.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/interactions-between-peacemaking-and-constitution-making-processes-in-burundi-a-stabilising-or-a-crisis-factorBurundi
Ending the Armed Conflict in MozambiqueElliot ShortMediation, PeacemakingNegotiations hosted by the Community of Sant’Egidio in Rome concluded with the signing of the General Peace Agreement, which ended the armed conflict in Mozambique after three decades of near-continuous war.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-mozambique/Mozambique
Ending The Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (North Kivu – M23)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Negotiations, PeacekeepingThe armed conflict in North Kivu between the Congolese government and the M23 armed group was ended by the deployment of a peacekeeping mission, regional diplomacy, and a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-north-kivu-m23/Democratic Republic of Congo
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Indonesia (Aceh)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Mediation, Peace Processes: ImplementationThe International Monitoring Presence and the Aceh Monitoring Mission helped to prevent a conflict relapse in the Indonesian province of Aceh.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-indonesia-aceh/Indonesia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Ethiopia (Somali Region)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Mediation, Facilitation
The long-running armed conflict in the Somali Region of Ethiopia was ended by a peace agreement mediated with support from Conciliation Resources.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-ethiopia-somali-region/Ethiopia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nicaragua (Fn 3-80)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Processes: Implementation
The Frente Norte 3-80 insurgency was ended in Nicaragua by a peace agreement and its personnel were disarmed.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nicaragua-fn-3-80/Nicaragua
Ending The Interstate Conflict Between Eritrea And EthiopiaElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Dialogue, PeacekeepingThe war between Eritrea and Ethiopia was ended by mediation efforts led by the Organisation of African Unity during negotiations held in Algeria and the deployment of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) to the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-eritrea-and-ethiopia/Ethiopia
Resolving the Militarised Territorial Dispute between Bahrain and QatarElliot ShortDiplomacy, ArbitrationThe longstanding militarised territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar regarding the Hawar Islands was prevented by the diplomatic intervention of the Government of Saudi Arabia and resolved by the International Court of Justice in 2001.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-bahrain-and-qatar/Bahrain
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between Cameroon And NigeriaElliot ShortMediation, Negotiations, Diplomacy: Track 1
A militarised territorial dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria was resolved by the International Court of Justice, the Organisation of African Unity, and the UN helped to ensure the peaceful withdrawal of Nigerian forces from the contested area.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-cameroon-and-nigeria/Cameroon, Nigeria
Ending The Armed Conflict In BangladeshElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Mediation, Peace Agreement
The Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord brought an end to two decades of armed conflict and formally recognised the special status of the indigenous population.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-bangladesh/Bangladesh
Containing the armed conflict between South Sudan and Sudan (Abyei)Elliot ShortMediation, PeacekeepingA UN peacekeeping mission has helped to prevent renewed armed conflict in the contested area of Abyei for a decade.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-between-south-sudan-and-sudan-abyei/Sudan
Ending The Armed Conflict In The Republic Of CongoElliot ShortReconcilitation, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Governance: Transition A series of peace agreements mediated by the Government of Gabon brought an end to the armed conflict that engulfed the Republic of Congo during the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-republic-of-congo/Republic of the Congo
Ending The Interstate Conflict Between Ecuador And PeruElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Peace Processes: Implementation, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe mediation of four regional governments (the Guarantors of the Rio De Janeiro Protocol) led by Brazil ended the interstate conflict between Ecuador and Peru in 1995 after just over one month of fighting.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-interstate-conflict-between-ecuador-and-peru/Peru
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In MozambiqueElliot ShortElections, Peace Agreement, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The United Nations Operations in Mozambique helped to maintain peace and stability in extremely adverse conditions in post-war Mozambique.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-mozambique/Mozambique
Malian Women’s Participation in the Algiers NegotiationsJenny LorentzenNegotiations, Gender, Peace ProcessThis FAIR case brief focuses on Malian women's participation in the Algiers negotiations in 2014­–2015. It shows how there were stark differences in perceptions of fairness when it came to women's participation among the different actors involved, including relatively strong resistance to women's participation from the international mediation team and the conflict parties in Algiers. Women activists, on the other hand, considered their exclusion and the resistance they faced as deeply unfair. They voiced their concerns through national and international campaigns, and sought support from international partners such as the UN, EU, bilateral partners, and individuals in positions of power. Even though exclusion dominated the Malian negotiations, the perceptions of this as unfair resonated enough with relevant audiences for the actors to enter into limited negotiations and adaptations with regards to how women should participate (at the table, through civil society hearings, from a distance), when women should participate (during negotiations or in the reconciliation), and which women should participate (civil society representatives or members of negotiation teams).
https://www.prio.org/publications/12903Mali
Crisis in Mali: Root Causes and Long-Term SolutionsHannah ArmstrongGovernance: Power Sharing, Violent ExtremismAfter a downfall into statelessness and a loss of control of two-thirds of the territory in 2012, Mali has been in the process of recovery since the French-led intervention. There has been a national consensus that decentralization is the key to enhancing the political power of marginalized localities and improving security in the high-risk northern zone. Decentralization is a long-term strategy that furthers political agency, benefiting both the government and the local collectives, including the northern regions. The strategy’s development and the restoration of legitimate state leadership can protect the fragile state against destabilizing blowback. Yet, it is essential to understand and address the root causes in order to achieve solutions for the long term. For instance, the international focus on counterterrorism and regime change in Mali risks obscuring the long-term political root causes of the current crisis. Peacebuilding efforts must be carefully considered, not only due to the instability and challenges but also because of the increasing politicization of ethnic divisions that might be examined by looking at the root causes. https://www.usip.org/publications/2013/05/crisis-mali-root-causes-and-long-term-solutionsMali
Ending The Armed Conflict In Indonesia (North Maluku)Elliot ShortViolence Prevention, Religion and Conflict, Human RightsThe deployment of Indonesian security forces to North Maluku ended the intercommunal conflict and prevented further fighting.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-north-maluku/Indonesia
Preventing Armed Conflict In GuyanaElliot ShortDialogue, Violence Prevention, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
The UN Social Cohesion Program and the deployment of international observers from a range of intergovernmental organisations helped to ensure that the 2006 elections in Guyana did not spark an armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guyana/Guyana
Ending The Proxy Conflict Between Chad And SudanElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy: Track 1, Peace Processes: Implementation
A peace agreement mediated by the Government of Senegal helped to end years of proxy conflict between the governments of Chad and Sudan and reduce the risk of a major interstate conflict between them.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-proxy-conflict-between-chad-and-sudan/Chad
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Bodoland)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State Actors
The armed conflict between Bodo armed groups and Indian security services in Assam was finally ended in 2020 after several attempts to find a negotiated settlement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-assam/India
Ending The Armed Conflict In AlbaniaElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Elections, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
The Multinational Protection Force, an Italian-led peacekeeping mission mandated by the UN to restore order in Albania in 1997, succeeded in ending the armed conflict and restoring stability to Albania following a severe political crisis.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-albania/Albania
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Papua New Guinea (Bougainville)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Peacekeeping, Inclusive PeacebuildingA series of international peacekeeping missions helped to ensure Bougainville did not relapse into conflict and created a stable and secure environment for the new administration to govern the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-papua-new-guinea-bougainville/Papua New Guinea
Containing The Armed Conflict In Russia (East Prigorodny)Elliot ShortInterventionThe deployment of Russian forces ended the fighting in East Prigorodny after six days.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-russia-east-prigorodny/Russia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In West Africa With Legal ProsecutionsElliot ShortReconciliation, Human Rights, Rule of LawBy removing powerful figures with a history of employing violence and armed conflict from the political environment, establishing a historical record of events leading up to and during the war, and bringing the perpetrators of war crimes to justice, a series of transitional justice mechanisms helped to prevent a conflict relapse in West Africa.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-west-africa-with-legal-prosecutions/West Africa
Ending the Kurdish Civil War in IraqElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementThe Washington Agreement ended a four-year armed conflict between the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan in Iraqi Kurdistan during the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-kurdish-civil-war-in-iraq/Iraq
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Timor-LesteElliot ShortGovernance: Constitutions, Internally Displaced Persons/Refugees, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations
A transitional international administration and a peacekeeping mission helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Timor-Leste and laid the foundations for an accountable state governed by a constitution and an elected government to be built.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-timor-leste/Timor-Leste
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Côte d’Ivoire-Liberia BorderElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Preventive Diplomacy, PeacekeepingArmed conflict has been reduced in the relatively unstable borderlands between Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia and bilateral relations have also improved.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-cote-divoire-liberia-border/Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Guinea-bissauElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Ceasefire, ElectionsMediation by the CPLP and ECOWAS helped to end the civil war in Guinea-Bissau.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-guinea-bissau/Guinea-Bissau
Conflict Assessment, Galmudug State: An Analysis of Local PerspectivesAbass Kassim Sheikh, Janel B. Galvanek, Pascal GrimmInclusive Peace Processes, Local PeacemakingThis study investigated the nature and dynamics of conflicts in Galmudug State. The assessment examined the various conflicts that exist in the state and the key actors that play a central role in these conflicts. It also examined the conflict resolution mechanisms that are used to resolve local conflicts in Galmudug State, and the actors that play an important role in conflict resolution and reconciliation processes. Additionally, it examined opinions and attitudes on topics such as federalism and overall political participation in Galmudug State while also investigating the various challenges to conflict resolution and reconciliation processes.https://berghof-foundation.org/library/conflict-assessment-galmudug-state-an-analysis-of-local-perspectivesSomalia
Preventing Armed Conflict in GhanaElliot ShortElections, Citizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking InitiativesGhanaian people and organisations worked alongside the government and security services to ensure that the 2008 elections did not spark an armed conflict in Ghana.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-ghana/Ghana
Stopping The Armed Conflict In Angola For Five YearsElliot ShortElections, Governance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party
The fighting in Angola was significantly reduced for approximately five years thanks to the mediation efforts of the UN and the governments of Portugal and USA.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-angola-for-five-years/Angola
Maintaining Stability and Containing Armed Conflict in LebanonElliot ShortPeacekeepingUN Peacekeepers have helped maintain stability and contain or end several armed conflicts in Lebanon since 1978.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/maintaining-stability-and-containing-armed-conflict-in-lebanon/Lebanon
Preventing Armed Conflict In Georgia (Adjara)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy, Citizen Action
The diplomatic efforts of the Georgian and Russian governments helped prevent a war in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-georgia-adjara/Georgia
Keeping The Peace And Building Stability In NamibiaElliot ShortGovernance: Constitutions, Elections, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)The United Nations Transition Assistance Group helped to ensure that the withdrawal of South African troops and broader post-conflict transition of the newly independent Namibian state was peaceful.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/keeping-the-peace-and-building-stability-in-namibia/Namimbia
Containing the Armed Conflict in Mexico (Chiapas)Elliot ShortMonitoringAlthough the conflict between the Zapatista movement and the Government of Mexico has not been resolved, the fighting has been effectively contained since 1997.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-mexico-chiapas/Mexico
Preventing Armed Conflict In Fyr Macedonia (2001)Elliot ShortNegotiations, Peacekeeping, Governance: Reforms
Armed conflict was prevented once again in Macedonia in 2001, in this case by a diplomatic intervention by a range of intergovernmental organisations, the deployment of a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation peacekeeping mission, and the strengthening of existing peace infrastructure.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-fyr-macedonia-2001/North Macedonia
UN DDR in an Era of Violent Extremism: Is It Fit for Purpose?James Cockayne, Siobhan O'NeilDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Peacekeeping, TrainingThis short collection of studies examines the challenges to effective United Nations (UN) disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programming posed by today’s conflict environment. The collection, and the larger research initiative of which it is a part, aim to generate debate about how to best address the legal, operational, ethical, and strategic challenges facing DDR programme staff in the field.https://peacekeeping.un.org/sites/default/files/un_ddr_in_an_era_of_violent_extremism.pdfWorldwide
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nigeria (Plateau State)Elliot ShortAlternative Dispute Resolution, Monitoring/Verification: Local, Early Warning
A military intervention by the Nigerian military helped to contain intercommunal violence in Plateau State until the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue mediated a peace agreement which ended the fighting and helped create a peace infrastructure to continue its work and prevent a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nigeria-plateau-state/Nigeria
Containing The Armed Conflict In UkraineElliot ShortDiplomacy, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, DialogueThe armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine has been contained to the oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk with help from the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, which deployed a monitoring mission to the region and has facilitated dialogue between the belligerents since the war began.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-ukraine/Ukraine
Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict Between Israel and Jordan Elliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementThe mediation efforts of the Government of USA ended the state of war between Israel and Jordan that had existed for 46 years, greatly reducing the risk of further interstate conflict and stabilising the region.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-between-israel-and-jordan/Israel
Ending The Armed Conflict In Côte D’ivoireElliot ShortCivil War, Ceasefire, PeacekeepingA series of international peacekeeping missions helped to contain the conflict in Côte d’Ivoire until a French/UN 2011 military intervention definitively ended the conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-cote-divoire/Cote D'Ivoire
Reducing Armed Conflict On The Ethiopia-Kenya BorderElliot ShortCitizen Action, Early Warning, Monitoring/Verification: LocalArmed conflict between communities living near the Ethiopia-Kenya border was reduced and the risk of interstate conflict was significantly reduced. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-kenya-border/Ethiopia, Kenya
Ending the Armed Conflict in Bosnia and HerzegovinaElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementThe Government of the USA successfully mediated a series of peace agreements which ended the multifaceted armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina/Bosnia and Herzegovina
Transitional Justice and DDR: The Case of RwandaLars WaldorfDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Peace Process, Transitional Justice
The International Center for Transitional Justice explores the relationship between transitional justice interventions and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs in the case of post-genocide Rwanda. The creation of 11,000 Gacaca (courts) enabled Rwanda to have trials for 1/5 of the adult population and they also began the process of DDR 1995, demobilizing and reintegrating 54,000 people by 2009. Some barriers to success have been overpromised foreign aid, a failed micro-credit scheme, lack of gender sensitivity, and extensive stays in rehabilitation centers, and political instability. A number of organizations have set upon DDR and have offered protection, education, rehabilitation respites, transportation, financial support, etc. The local Gacaca helped to ensure accountability and in some cases reparations on a wide yet sustainable level. The clearest outcome of this study is that DDR and transitional justice efforts (Gacaca) are more successful when carried out in isolation of each other. It became clear to the researchers that DDR would cease to be a genuine effort when combined with a justice process.https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-DDR-Rwanda-CaseStudy-2009-English.pdfRwanda
Ending The Armed Conflict Between Communities In Ethiopia And KenyaElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Dialogue, Problem-Solving WorkshopThe 2005-2009 conflict between the Gabra and Borana communities on the Ethiopia/Kenya border was ended, stabilising the frontier, and reducing the likelihood of further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-communities-in-ethiopia-and-kenya/Ethiopia
Ending The Armed Conflict In South Africa (Natal)Elliot ShortCeasefire, Election, Reconciliation
The armed conflict between the ANC and Inkatha/IFP in the South African province of Natal during the end of apartheid was ended.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-africa-natal/South Africa
Reducing Conflict And Building Stability On The Burundi-Tanzania BorderElliot ShortTraining, Internally Displaced Persons/Refugees, Alternative Dispute ResolutionThe UN has helped to manage conflict and instability along the international border between Burundi and Tanzania, reducing the likelihood of armed conflict between communities and minimising the risk of an interstate conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-conflict-and-building-stability-on-the-burundi-tanzania-border/Burundi, Tanzania
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Sierra LeoneElliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Peace Processes: Implementation, PeacekeepingThe United Nations Mission to Sierra Leone disarmed over 70,000 combatants, oversaw a peaceful election, and helped to strengthen the Sierra Leonean state, preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-sierra-leone/Sierra Leone
Preventing Armed Conflict In Moldova (Gagauzia)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Identity and ConflictA second war in Moldova during the 1990s was prevented thanks to the negotiation of an effective political compromise with Gagauz leaders.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-moldova-gagauzia/Moldova
Preventing Armed Conflict In ZimbabweElliot ShortGovernance: Transitition, Peace Processes: Inclusion, Preventive DiplomacyThe diplomatic intervention of the Southern African Development Community and South African President Mbeki helped to avert an armed conflict in Zimbabwe following a contested election in 2008. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-zimbabwe/Zimbabwe
Ending The Armed Conflict Between Communities In Ethiopia And KenyaElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Dialogue, Problem-Solving WorkshopThe 2005-2009 conflict between the Gabra and Borana communities on the Ethiopia/Kenya border was ended, stabilising the frontier, and reducing the likelihood of further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-communities-in-ethiopia-and-kenya/Kenya
Ending The Armed Conflict Between Georgia And RussiaElliot ShortCeasefire, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Agreement
Negotiations hosted by the EU ended the 2008 interstate conflict between Georgia and Russia in five days.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-between-georgia-and-russia/Georgia
Preventing an interstate conflict between Colombia, Ecuador, and VenezuelaElliot ShortDiplomacyA war between Colombia and Ecuador, which was likely to have drawn in Venezuela as well, was avoided with the help of a diplomatic intervention from the Organisation of American States and the Rio Group.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-colombia-and-ecuador-and-venezuela/Ecuador
Ending The Armed Conflict In Timor-LesteElliot ShortPeacekeeping,Referenda: Independence, Governance: TransitionA multilateral military intervention led by Australia brought an end to the armed conflict in Timor-Leste in 2000 after decades of instability and war.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-timor-leste/Timor-Leste
Ending The Armed Conflict In South AfricaElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking: Interreligious, Governance: Transition, DialogueThe armed conflict between the African National Congress (ANC) and the Government of South Africa was ended and the risk of a larger war was minimised.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-south-africa/South Africa
Preventing Conflict Relapse In LiberiaElliot ShortFragility, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), TrainingA series of peacekeeping operations helped to maintain stability in Liberia for fifteen years following the signing of the Accra Agreement, preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-conflict-relapse-in-liberia/Liberia
Ending the Armed Conflict in TajikistanElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Mediation, Peace AgreementA series of multilateral peacekeeping and monitoring missions and the mediation efforts of the UN and the Inter-Tajik Dialogue helped to bring an end to the intrastate armed conflict in Tajikistan in 1997. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-tajikistan/Tajikistan
Containing The Armed Conflict In Nagorno-KarabakhElliot ShortDiplomacy, Peacekeeping
The armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a territory claimed by both Armenia and Azerbaijan, has been contained since 1994 by the ongoing diplomatic efforts of the Minsk Group, preventing the eruption of a much larger confrontation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-nagorno-karabakh/Russia
Reducing Armed Conflict Across KenyaElliot ShortCitizen Action, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Peace AgreementThe development of an effective peace infrastructure helped to reduce armed conflict across Kenya and limit the risk of electoral violence.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-across-kenya/Kenya
Ending the Armed Conflict in El SalvadorElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementAfter 12 years of devastating civil war, the armed conflict in El Salvador was finally ended after negotiations mediated by the UN culminated with the signing of the Chapultepec Peace Accords in 1992.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-el-salvador/El Salvador
Ending The Armed Conflict In DjiboutiElliot ShortCivil War, Ceasefire, Governance: ConstitutionsA series of peace agreements mediated by the Government of France ended the armed conflict in Djibouti and French peacekeepers helped to verify implementation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-djibouti/Djibouti
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Mozambique (2013 – 2018)Elliot ShortNegotiations, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State ActorsTalks mediated by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Government of Switzerland helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Mozambique more than two decades after the devastating civil war there had ended.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-mozambique-2013-2018/Mozambique
Preventing Armed Conflict In Burkina FasoElliot ShortCitizen Action, Governance: Transition, MediationPreventive diplomacy by the African Union and locally led mediation efforts helped to prevent a war in Burkina Faso following a military coup d’état.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-burkina-faso/Burkina Faso
Containing the armed conflict in Georgia (Abkhazia)Elliot ShortPeacekeeping, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationA series of international and regional peacekeeping missions have helped to contain the armed conflict in Abkhazia, preventing a conflict relapse that could have sparked much broader regional confrontations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-georgia-abkhazia/Georgia
Preventing Widespread Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (Ituri)Elliot ShortFood Insecurity, Internally Displaced Persons/Refugees, Humanitarian EngagementOperation Artemis prevented a much larger conflict which could have contributed to a major famine from happening in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2003.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-widespread-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-ituri/Democratic Republic of the Congo
Preventing Armed Conflict In Guinea-BissauElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), MediationA diplomatic intervention led by Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the deployment of the ECOWAS Mission in Guinea-Bissau helped to prevent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau in 2012.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-guinea-bissau/Guinea-Bissau
Stopping The Armed Conflict In Somalia (Mudug)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Local
The peace agreement ended the fighting in the central province of Mudug, reducing armed conflict in the area and allowing supplies to cross Somalia, mitigating the impact of other conflicts.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/stopping-the-armed-conflict-in-somalia-mudug/Somalia
Ending The Armed Conflict In NigerElliot ShortClimate and Conflict, Armed Non-State Actors, Governance: ReformsThe 1991-1997 Tuareg rebellion in Niger was ended by a series of peace agreements, heralding a decade of relative peace in the country.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-niger/Niger
Preventing Armed Conflict On The Ethiopia-Somalia BorderElliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Land Tenure, ReparationsThe Government of Puntland ended the pervasive armed conflict on the Ethiopia/Somalia border, minimising the risk of an interstate conflict in future.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-on-the-ethiopia-somalia-border/Ethiopia, Somalia
Ending The Armed Conflict In BurundiElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Ratification: Peace Agreement

International mediation efforts led by South African President Nelson Mandela and the deployment of African Union and UN peacekeepers helped to end the war in Burundi after 13 years of armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-burundi/Burundi
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Nagaland)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State Actors
An ongoing peace process effectively contained the armed conflict in Nagaland for 14 years until a more comprehensive settlement was reached in 2015.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-nagaland/India
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In South SudanElliot ShortPeace Agreement, Governance: Transition. MediationThe IGAD has successfully prevented a conflict relapse in South Sudan by employing a range of monitoring mechanisms and facilitating ongoing dialogue between former belligerents.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-south-sudan/South Sudan
Preventing Armed Conflict In Fyr Macedonia (1993-1999)Elliot ShortMediation, Referenda: Independence, PeacekeepingA timely diplomatic intervention by a range of international organisations and the deployment of a preventive peacekeeping mission helped the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to avoid armed conflict during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-fyr-macedonia/North Macedonia
Preventing Armed Conflict In São Tomé And PríncipeElliot ShortRule of Law, Governance: Reforms, Preventive Diplomacy
Constitutional order was peacefully restored in São Tomé and Príncipe thanks to the mediation efforts of a host of national governments and international organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-sao-tome-and-principe/São Tomé and Príncipe
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Ecuador And PeruElliot ShortDiplomacy, Mediation, Peace Processes: ImplementationA return to armed conflict on the volatile border was prevented and the territorial dispute that had caused so many wars over the centuries was resolved.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-ecuador-and-peru/Ecuador, Peru
Containing the Armed Conflict in KashmirElliot ShortDiplomacy, PeacekeepingThe United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has helped to prevent a major interstate war between India and Pakistan in Kashmir since 1949.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-kashmir/Kashmir
Preventing Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of CongoElliot ShortElections, Violence Prevention, Governance: TransititionAn armed conflict was prevented during the 2006 general elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo thanks to the concerted efforts of local people and organisation, the Congolese administration, and donors such as the EU.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo/Democratic Republic of Congo
Ending The Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (North Kivu - Cndp)Elliot ShortDiplomacy, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Armed Non-State ActorsThe armed conflict between the Congress for the Defence of the People and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo in North Kivu was ended with a peace agreement following a UN investigation.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-north-kivu-cndp/Democratic Republic of Congo
Preventing Interstate Conflict Between Belize And GuatemalaElliot ShortRule of Law, Facilitation, NegotiationA diplomatic intervention by the Organisation of American States helped to prevent an interstate conflict between Belize and Guatemala in 1999-2000.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-belize-and-guatemala/Belize, Guatemela
Ending the Armed Conflict in AngolaElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementAn agreement negotiated by the belligerents ended the conflict in Angola.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-angola/Angola
Preventing an interstate conflict between Colombia, Ecuador, and VenezuelaElliot ShortDiplomacyA war between Colombia and Ecuador, which was likely to have drawn in Venezuela as well, was avoided with the help of a diplomatic intervention from the Organisation of American States and the Rio Group.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-colombia-and-ecuador-and-venezuela/Venezuela
Reducing Armed Conflict In Somalia (Somaliland)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), DialogueThanks to the efforts of local people and organisations, Somaliland has remained at peace for almost thirty years while much of the rest of Somalia was been plagued by conflict and famine.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-somalia-somaliland/Somalia
Preventing An Interstate Conflict Between South Sudan And SudanElliot ShortReferenda: Independence, Armed Non-State Actors, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
South Sudan and Sudan have maintained relatively peaceful relations for a decade thanks to the mechanisms established following the 2011 referendum.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-an-interstate-conflict-between-south-sudan-and-sudan/Sudan / South Sudan
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In CambodiaElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Governance: Transition, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)
The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia maintained peace and stability in post-conflict Cambodia until a national government was formed in 1993.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-cambodia/Cambodia
Mitigating The Impact Of Armed Conflict In Democratic Republic Of Congo (Butembo)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking: Interreligious, Private Sector and Peacebuilding, Food Insecurity
The city of Butembo and its population was spared from much of the fighting that took place across the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1999-2003 thanks to the efforts of local people and organisations.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-in-democratic-republic-of-congo-butembo/Democratic Republic of the Congo