North and Central America

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North and Central America

Produced by like minded partner organizations, these evidence based policy articles and reports focus on the geographical region of North and Central America.

This table contains the entire repository of data and resources that the Better Evidence Project has collected and curated for North and Central America. To find resources you are interested in, simply use the search box on the top right of the table and search based on any parameters that you are interested in: Country name, Keywords, Type of Resource, Authors, etc. The table will automatically populate as you search.  You can expand the number of entries you’d like to see by toggling the show entries box (top left of the table) and selecting the number you’d like to see.

To help narrow your search by keywords, please refer to this post that features a running list of keywords in use in the repository.

Resource Library

Navigate through our resource library, search for the terms you are interested in and the table will populate automatically with matching results.
TitleAuthorsSubject KeywordsAbstractLinkCountry Name
The Role of Civil Society in Peace Processes – A Case Study of Guatemala: Ethical ReflectionsWenche Iren HaugeLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Citizen action, Peace Process

​The Guatemalan peace process from 1990 to 1996 represents an early example of the inclusion of civil society in a negotiation process. However, once included, what role could civil society play – and in this case what role was it allowed to play? Clearly, civil society had an influence on the negotiations between the government and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG), but on some sensitive and critical issues civil society was prevented from exerting pressure on the parties. This case brief looks at the ethical implications of this situation.
https://www.prio.org/publications/12985Guatemala
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In El SalvadorElliot ShortPeace Agreement, Ceasefire, Governance: Transition
The United Nations Observer Group in El Salvador and the United Nations Mission in El Salvador verified the implementation of a ceasefire, contributed to stabilising the country, and strengthened the fragile institutions, preventing a conflict relapse in El Salvadorhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-comoros/El Salvador
INFORME FINAL EVALUACIÓN DEL PROGRAMA CONJUNTO DE PAZ PARA GENERACIÓN POST CONFLICTOPeacekeeping, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E), Conflict PreventionThis final report evaluates the first experience of implementation of the program of Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) for the post-conflict generation, executed in El Salvador. It was established in 2006 as a flexible tool to consolidate peace, supporting the broader peace objectives of the United Nations in countries at risk of falling back into conflict. This report covers 18 months of the first PBF-approved intervention to support the peacekeeping agenda and the achievement of a “second generation of peace agreements”. The evaluation of the program has the main purpose of learning. The evaluation of the Joint Peace Program for the Post-Conflict Generation provides evidence about the planned and unplanned results achieved, what has worked and what has not, and why. Likewise, the evaluation illustrates lessons learned, as well as the good practices that have been generated through the implementation of the Program, which can be taken up and implemented by the agencies and their partners and participants. The evaluation has set the following main objective: Examine how and to what extent the Joint Peace Program for the Post-Conflict Generation has contributed to the strengthening and consolidation of care and protection mechanisms for people affected by different manifestations of violence. In this sense, to give an accurate response to the defined needs, the objective is complemented with the definition of the evaluation criteria, for which the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of the intervention of the Program concerning the design and results achieved, as well as the unintended results, identifying possible negative and positive consequences derived from the intervention. Further, The Joint Peace Program for the Post-Conflict Generation implemented contains a framework of results made up of three major results, namely: Result 1. Strengthened institutional mechanisms for protection and attention to victims, Result 2. The strengthen of institutional mechanisms for care and reintegration of the returned migrant population, Result 3. Increase institutional capacities for the fulfillment of internal and external control functions of Security and Justice institutions. https://www.un.org/peacebuilding/sites/www.un.org.peacebuilding/files/documents/informe_final_de_la_evaluacion_programa_conjunto_de_paz_para_generacion_post_conflicto.pdfEl Salvador
Subsist or Persist? Assessing Drivers of Migration and Effects of Foreign Assistance Programs on Migration from the Northern TriangleMercy CorpsMigration and conflict, Northern TriangleThis report aims to identify solutions rooted in evidence and research, examining who migrates, why they are migrating, and whether development programs can curb the flow of migration. The report finds that foreign assistance programs are alleviating violence and increasing economic opportunity, economic hardships—including the effects of climate change on agricultural livelihoods—and violence are key drivers of migration, and that people migrate out of desperation. The report finds that the evidence that they do have demonstrates that U.S.-funded initiatives are improving lives in the Northern Triangle and these programs likely do contribute to curbing migration by addressing its root causes.https://www.mercycorps.org/research-resources/subsist-or-persistEl Salvador
Subsist or Persist? Assessing Drivers of Migration and Effects of Foreign Assistance Programs on Migration from the Northern TriangleMercy CorpsMigration and conflict, Northern TriangleThis report aims to identify solutions rooted in evidence and research, examining who migrates, why they are migrating, and whether development programs can curb the flow of migration. The report finds that foreign assistance programs are alleviating violence and increasing economic opportunity, economic hardships—including the effects of climate change on agricultural livelihoods—and violence are key drivers of migration, and that people migrate out of desperation. The report finds that the evidence that they do have demonstrates that U.S.-funded initiatives are improving lives in the Northern Triangle and these programs likely do contribute to curbing migration by addressing its root causes.https://www.mercycorps.org/research-resources/subsist-or-persistGuatemala
Ending The Armed Conflict In Nicaragua (Fn 3-80)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Processes: Implementation
The Frente Norte 3-80 insurgency was ended in Nicaragua by a peace agreement and its personnel were disarmed.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nicaragua-fn-3-80/Nicaragua
Ending the Armed Conflict in GuatemalaElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementNegotiations mediated by the UN resulted in the signing of the Accord for a Firm and Lasting Peace in 1996, ending the armed conflict in Guatemala after 36 years. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-guatemala/Guatemala
Preventing Interstate Conflict Between Belize And GuatemalaElliot ShortRule of Law, Facilitation, NegotiationA diplomatic intervention by the Organisation of American States helped to prevent an interstate conflict between Belize and Guatemala in 1999-2000.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-interstate-conflict-between-belize-and-guatemala/Belize, Guatemela
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Costa Rica And NicaraguaElliot ShortPreventive Diplomacy, Rule of Law, DialogueA diplomatic intervention by the Organisation of American States prevented an armed conflict between Costa Rica and Nicaragua from erupting in 2010 and the International Court of Justice peacefully resolved the dispute in 2018.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-costa-rica-and-nicaragua/Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Ending the Armed Conflict in El SalvadorElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementAfter 12 years of devastating civil war, the armed conflict in El Salvador was finally ended after negotiations mediated by the UN culminated with the signing of the Chapultepec Peace Accords in 1992.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-el-salvador/El Salvador
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In GuatemalaElliot ShortPeace Processes: Implementation, Governance: Reforms, Human RightsThe United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala ensured the ceasefire held and disarmed combatants, in addition to guaranteeing a relatively safe and secure environment for elections to take place alongside EU and Organisation of American States observers, preventing a conflict relapse in Guatemala.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-guatemala/Guatemala
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Honduras And NicaraguaElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Rule of LawThe Organisation of American States helped to prevent a territorial dispute between Honduras and Nicaragua from escalating into armed conflict while the International Court of Justice investigated the case and resolved the dispute peacefully.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-honduras-and-nicaragua/Honduras, Nicaragua
Ending The Armed Conflict In NicaraguaElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations, Mediation A series of peace agreements mediated by regional governments and the deployment of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America helped to end the armed conflict in Nicaragua in 1990.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nicaragua/Nicaragua