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Produced by like minded partner organizations, these evidence based policy articles and reports focus on the geographical region of Europe.

This table contains the entire repository of data and resources that the Better Evidence Project has collected and curated for Europe. To find resources you are interested in, simply use the search box on the top right of the table and search based on any parameters that you are interested in: Country name, Keywords, Type of Resource, Authors, etc. The table will automatically populate as you search.  You can expand the number of entries you’d like to see by toggling the show entries box (top left of the table) and selecting the number you’d like to see. 

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TitleAuthorsSubject KeywordsAbstractLinkCountry Name
Preventing Armed Conflict In Moldova (Gagauzia)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Identity and ConflictA second war in Moldova during the 1990s was prevented thanks to the negotiation of an effective political compromise with Gagauz leaders.
Cost of Conflict: Untold Stories, Georgian- Ossetian ContextDina Alborova, Susan Allen, Nino KalandarishviliCost of Conflict, Stories, Conflict experiencesThis collection brings together personal stories told by people who were directly affected by the conflict and who continue to pay a price for the conflict today. In multilayered analysis of the conflict and of ways of its resolution the analysis of the human dimension is paid much less attention. This subse­quently impedes the perception of the complete picture and leads to decisions that neglect the interests of those people who carry the heavy burden of con­flicts and wars. Ossetia
Peacemaking and Constitutional Change: Negotiating Power-sharing Arrangements and Identity Issues: The Republic of (North) Macedonia and The Ohrid Framework AgreementBoshko StankovskiDemocracy and Governance, Conflict PreventionThis study looks at the case of the Republic of Macedonia and the Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA) of 2001, which averted a full-blown civil war, the resulting constitution making process, and the implementation of the constitution. The study highlights the OFA as an important example of a peace agreement that incorporated a policy of multiculturalism at the constitutional level and established a complex power-sharing mechanism between the concerned communities. The Agreement was not only brokered by the international community, but also signed by the EU and the US as its guarantors, therefore classifying the OFA as a type of a hybrid, internationalized and ultimately successful peace agreement. The study analyzes some key aspects of the OFA, such as the dual track approach and the interplay between the political and security component; institutionalization of the process; the role of experts in the negotiations/mediation; and challenges of terminology and constructive ambiguity. Macedonia
Ending The Armed Conflict In SpainElliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Ceasefire
The work of international NGOs helped to end the conflict between the Government of Spain and the Basque separatist movement, ETA.
Ending The Armed Conflict In Russia (Chechnya)Elliot ShortViolent Extremism, Governance: Power Sharing, CeasefireThe diplomatic manoeuvrings of the Government of Russia ended the war in Chechnya after a decade of conflict.
The Role of the EU and Other Third Parties in Promoting the Gender, Peace and Security Agenda in Mediation and Dialogue ProcessesPamela Urrutia, Maria Villellas, Ana VillellasMediation, Dialogue, GenderThis report analyses lessons learned and good practices in introducing a gender perspective to peace processes in order to strengthen the EU’s capabilities in this area. The document reflects on various practical experiences by the EU and other third parties in the area of gender and multi-track diplomacy in two specific spheres. Firstly, the gender dimension in EU’s role as a mediator/facilitator. This report analyses issues like challenges and dilemmas of mediation from a gender perspective; complementarity and coordination in multi-track diplomacy from a gender perspective and the availability of gender-responsive mediators. Secondly, the report focuses on EU’s actions via other types of engagement (promoting, supporting, leveraging and funding), like political support for women’s involvement in peace processes, financial and technical support to empower women and strengthen local women’s organizations and financial support for capabilities in the area of gender and third-party mediation.
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in Kosovo
Elliot ShortPeacekeeping , TransitionA North Atlantic Treaty Organisation peacekeeping force, a UN transitional administration, and a political mission from the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe have successfully helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Kosovo since 1999.
Containing The Armed Conflict In Russia (East Prigorodny)Elliot ShortInterventionThe deployment of Russian forces ended the fighting in East Prigorodny after six days.
Ending The Armed Conflict Between Georgia And RussiaElliot ShortCeasefire, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Peace Agreement
Negotiations hosted by the EU ended the 2008 interstate conflict between Georgia and Russia in five days.
Preventing Armed Conflict In Russia (Dagestan)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Governance: Power Sharing, Inclusive Peacebuilding
Traditional methods of political organisation have helped prevent armed conflict in the Republic of Dagestan during the unrest and instability that has marked life in much of the Caucasus in the post-Soviet period.
Preventing Armed Conflict In The Caspian SeaElliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Negotiations, Economics and ConflictAn interstate conflict between Iran and Azerbaijan was prevented and the risk of war between any of the littoral states on the Caspian Sea was demonstrably reduced. Caspian Sea
Sharing the Burden: Lessons from the European Return to Multidimensional PeacekeepingArthur Boutellis, Michael BearyEuropean engagement, peacekeeping, task forceSince 2013, after years of near absence from the continent, a number of European countries, along with Canada, have again deployed to UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. The European presence in UN peacekeeping in Africa is now nearly at its largest since the mid-1990s. These countries provide much-needed high-end capabilities, as well as political and financial capital, to UN peacekeeping operations. Nonetheless, securing and sustaining European contributions to these types of peacekeeping operations remains an uphill battle for the UN. This paper draws lessons from this renewed engagement by European countries and Canada, both from their point of view, as well as from that of the UN Secretariat, UN field missions, and other troop contributors. It aims to explore how these bodies and other countries can best work together in a collective endeavor to improve UN peacekeeping’s efficiency and effectiveness. Toward this end, the paper recommends a number of actions to the UN Secretariat
Ensuring That The Collapse Of The Soviet Union Remained PeacefulElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Preventive DiplomacyA potentially volatile collapse of the Soviet Union took place peacefully thanks to the measured response of the Soviet leadership and the presence of international mechanisms that prevented instability and uncertainty from escalating into armed conflict.
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in Albania
Elliot ShortPeacekeeping , Political MissionThe Multinational Protection Force and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe Presence in Albania helped to restore order, monitored the border with Kosovo, and mediated a peaceful end to an attempted coup d’état in 1998
Ending Armed Conflict In The Uk (Northern Ireland)Elliot ShortPeace Agreement, Negotiations, Diplomacy: Track 1Negotiations mediated by the Government of USA resulted in the signing of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement/Belfast Agreement, which ended almost three decades of armed conflict and intercommunal violence in Northern Ireland. Ireland
Preventing Armed Conflict In EstoniaElliot ShortElections, Referenda: Independence, MediationA diplomatic intervention led by the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe helped to avert an armed conflict in Estonia following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Containing The Armed Conflict In Nagorno-KarabakhElliot ShortDiplomacy, Peacekeeping
The armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a territory claimed by both Armenia and Azerbaijan, has been contained since 1994 by the ongoing diplomatic efforts of the Minsk Group, preventing the eruption of a much larger confrontation.
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between China And Russia/Soviet UnionElliot ShortNegotiations, Dialogue, Ratification: Peace AgreementThe long-standing border dispute between China and Russia (which almost sparked a war in the 1960s) was resolved, dramatically reducing the chance of an interstate conflict, Russia/Soviet Union
Preventing Armed Conflict In Georgia (Adjara)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Diplomacy, Citizen Action
The diplomatic efforts of the Georgian and Russian governments helped prevent a war in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara.
Containing the armed conflict in Georgia (Abkhazia)Elliot ShortPeacekeeping, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationA series of international and regional peacekeeping missions have helped to contain the armed conflict in Abkhazia, preventing a conflict relapse that could have sparked much broader regional confrontations.
Keeping the Peace in CyprusElliot ShortPeacekeepingThe United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus has worked to keep the peace between the Turkish-held north and the rest of Cyprus since 1964.
Civil Society in Conflict Transformation: Strengths and Limitations Martina FischerCitizen action, Statebuilding, Humanitarian EngagementThis book chapter focuses on the potential contribution that civil society actors can make to peacebuilding. There is also an examination of what types of activities international and transnational NGOs undertake in order to influence international politics in a way that contributes to coping with global challenges. The author explores key questions such as: What are the strengths and limitations of civil society actors? What types of activities do NGOs undertake? What problems and dilemmas are faced in the development of civil society in war-torn societies? What is the role and potential of (local) civil society actors in war-to-peace transitions and what problems and dilemmas stem from the development of civil society in war-torn societies? She uses the example of Bosnia-Herzegovina to explore the limitations of civil society's contributions to peacebuilding, and how civil society relates to state-building. Finally, the chapter addresses how such considerations impact theoretical conceptualizations of the term "civil society". and Herzegovina
Preventing Armed Conflict In Fyr Macedonia (2001)Elliot ShortNegotiations, Peacekeeping, Governance: Reforms
Armed conflict was prevented once again in Macedonia in 2001, in this case by a diplomatic intervention by a range of intergovernmental organisations, the deployment of a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation peacekeeping mission, and the strengthening of existing peace infrastructure. Macedonia
Strategic thinking and conflict transformation: A reflection on and from the Basque CountryUrko Aiartza AzurtzaConflict Management and Resolution, Peacebuilding and PeacemakingThe disarmament and dissolution of the Basque separatist group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, better known under its acronym ETA, is a unique example of a creative and unilateral transition to end armed conflict. After the collapse of the negotiation process between the Spanish government and ETA in 2006, an internal debate within the Basque pro-independence movement led to a change of strategy. The new direction eventually resulted in the disarmament and dissolution of ETA in May 2018. How did it come about and what lessons can be drawn from this case for other conflicts? This report looks at these questions in detail, based on in-depth interviews with actors who took part in this democratic transition process as well as on the direct involvement and experiences of the author himself.
The Environment in Warfare-Related Policy Making: The case in UkraineHook, Kristina and Marcantonio, RichardEnvironment and conflictIn the chaotic reality of wars and armed conflicts, environmental issues are often downgraded in long lists of policy priorities. We suggest that this reality is partially driven by the simmering and subterraneous aspect of environmental risks; the long-term possibility of environmental degradation may not seize the attention of political decision-makers as intuitively as ongoing violence spikes or political turmoil. However, we also view the policy demotion of environmental risks in warzones as partially predicated on a present lack of empirically-based frameworks that rapidly-but-accurately organize the information saturation of complex crises. Taking into account the need for transferability across various geographic areas, political contexts, and case studies, we have developed a four-part assessment tool to analyze various risks by distinguishing between the environment 1) as a trigger, 2) as degraded, 3) as neglected, or 4) as a mechanism of control. While based on established scholarly findings, we introduce this tool as fulfilling an unmet, foundational policy need. To demonstrate how this tool can rapidly contextualize environmental risks, we also share previously unpublished data on Ukraine’s war-driven ongoing environmental crisis. With 11,000 people killed, 2 million internally displaced persons, and 4.4 million people in dire need of emergency humanitarian assistance (UN OCHA, 2018; UNIAN, 2018b), we conclude that environmental risks pose just as urgent a threat as the ongoing direct violence. Particularly worrying, our framework’s results illustrate how warfare in highly industrialized areas may leave harmful ecological and human security legacies for decades after active warfare concludes.
A More Equitable Society: Promoting Social Cohesion and Diversity in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Dialogue for the Future II)Alida Vračić, Aida Vežić, Marcus CoxDialogue, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E), Problem-Solving Workshop
This is a final evaluation of the joint project, “A More Equitable Society: Promoting Social Cohesion and Diversity in BiH (Dialogue for the Future II)” (DFF 2). The project was under the auspices of the BiH Presidency and funded with a $2 million grant from the UN Secretary- General’s Peacebuilding Fund. It was managed jointly by three UN agencies, UNICEF, UNDP, and UNESCO, and ran from January 2018 to December 2019. A predecessor project (DFF 1) had been implemented between 2014 and 2016. The DFF 2 joint project sought to promote dialogue and joint problem-solving among different groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) at local and state levels, to promote collaboration, trust and social cohesion. It had a focus on the youth, women’s organizations, and marginalized groups. It consisted of capacity building for civil society representatives, establishing dialogue platforms, a small grants facility for projects that promoted social cohesion, and a public information campaign and other media-related activities. The evaluation was undertaken over three months, beginning with an inception visit to UN offices in Sarajevo in January 2020 and with six days of fieldwork in February 2020. The evaluation finds that the project was highly relevant to the challenges facing BiH, and in particular to the circumstances of a post-war generation that has grown up with entrenched ethnic divisions. The design sought to build linkages and cooperation across groups through dialogue on social cohesion. However, some of the ambitious sets of outcome targets were not realistic. This evaluation ends by providing several recommendations for the UN’s future peacebuilding work and project design. and Herzegovina
New Paths and Policies towards Conflict Prevention: Chinese and Swiss PerspectivesCourtney J. Fung, Björn Gehrmann, Rachel F. Madenyika, Jason G. TowerConflict PreventionThis book explores the discourse on conflict prevention and peacebuilding by bringing together researchers from China and Switzerland over a series policy dialogues. The Charter of the United Nations, adopted in the immediate aftermath of World War II, is clear about the fundamental necessity for the international community to act in partnership to prevent violent conflict. Given recent shifts in global power dynamics, there is an apparent need for international policy issues to be addressed in ways that are inclusive of a wider variety of perspectives and approaches. Chinese policy actors are increasingly interested in fostering their own discourse on issues of prevention and peacebuilding, rooted in Chinese experience, and engaging with peers from other contexts. The chapters in this volume explore the rationale for conflict prevention and review prevailing academic and practitioner discourses on fundamental questions such as the rationales for why conflicts should be prevented and whether ‘mainstream approaches’ are still relevant. This book will be of interest to students of peacebuilding, conflict resolution, Chinese politics, and International Relations.
Containing The Armed Conflict In Georgia-(South Ossetia) For 16 YearsElliot ShortMediation, Peacekeeping, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe armed conflict in South Ossetia was contained between 1992 and 2008 by the deployment of a regional peacekeeping mission.
Containing The Armed Conflict In UkraineElliot ShortDiplomacy, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization, DialogueThe armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine has been contained to the oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk with help from the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, which deployed a monitoring mission to the region and has facilitated dialogue between the belligerents since the war began.
Containing The Armed Conflict In Moldova (Transnistria)Elliot ShortPeacekeeping, MediationThe peacekeeping efforts of the Joint Control Commission and ongoing talks mediated by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe has helped to prevent renewed conflict between the Government of Moldova and the administration of the breakaway republic in Transnistria.
Cost of Conflict: Core Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian ContextDina Alborova, Susan Allen, Nino KalandarishviliCost of conflict, ViolenceWe, as editors of this volume, have gathered this set of articles in order to provide a range of materials for discussion of the Costs of Conflict in the Georgian-South Ossetian context. From the theoretical perspective, Costs of Conflict can be assessed in many ways, drawing on many different scholarly approaches. The loss of human life is a measure of one of the gravest types of destruction caused by war. When we see the numbers of dead after a war, it is clear that irreversible destruction has changed families who lost loved ones. Another measure is migration. Populations uprooted by fighting or the threat of violence may never return. Or, significant efforts will be required to ease repatriation for those that wish to return once the fighting has ended. These humanitarian measures of death and migration provide a stark picture of the immediate human costs of conflict. However, as we look at the August 2008 war, and the previous fighting in 1989 and the early 1990s, we see that there are other costs to conflict, too, even beyond the tragic loss of life and the uprooted families. Ossetia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Bosnia And HerzegovinaElliot ShortRule of Law, Peace Agreement, PeacekeepingThe legal prosecution of political and military leaders who posed a threat to peace, the deployment of NATO and later EU peacekeepers, and the work of Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and EU advisory and monitoring missions has helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Bosnia and Herzegovina. and Herzegovina
Ending The Armed Conflict In SloveniaElliot ShortNegotiations, Ceasefire, Monitoring/Verification: Regional OrganizationThe mediation efforts of the European Community and the deployment of the European Community Monitoring Mission helped to end the armed conflict in Slovenia after ten days of fighting, preventing a much larger conflict.
Ending the Armed Conflict in Bosnia and HerzegovinaElliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementThe Government of the USA successfully mediated a series of peace agreements which ended the multifaceted armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. and Herzegovina
Ukraine Recovery and Peacebuiding Assessment : Analysis of Crisis Impacts and Needs in Eastern Ukraine, Volume 1. Synthesis ReportWorld Bank, European Union, United NationsFragility, Internally Displaced Persons/RefugeesIn mid-2014, the Government of Ukraine (GoU) requested technical assistance and financial support from the inter¬national community to assess and plan priority recovery and peacebuilding efforts in the conflict-affected regions of eastern Ukraine. Following these requests, and within the framework of the 2008 Joint Declaration on Post-Crisis Assessments and Recovery Planning, the EU, UN, and WBG agreed to support the government in undertaking a Recovery and Peacebuilding Assessment (RPA). This assessment follows the Post-Conflict Needs Assessment (PCNA) methodology. In view of the continuing conflict in eastern Ukraine, it was decided to undertake an initial rapid assess¬ment as a first phase of activity, which would provide an analytical and programmatic baseline for recovery efforts to inform urgent interventions and provide a basis for scaling up recovery plan¬ning and responses as the situation and needs evolve on the ground. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the first phase of the RPA, which was undertaken in the period November 2014 to February 2015. In light of the dynamic and fluid nature of the situation in eastern Ukraine, these findings should be considered as a snapshot in time. In particular, the assessment of infrastructure damage is limited to the damage that occurred on or before November 2014. Furthermore, the number of registered internally displaced persons (IDPs), utilized as a reference to estimate the needs of this affected population, corresponds to the official government estimates as of February 2015.
Ending The Armed Conflict In CroatiaElliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Peacekeeping, Ceasefire
The Contact Group (composed of Russia, EU, USA, and UN) successfully mediated the negotiation of the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, which ended the armed conflict in Croatia during the collapse of Yugoslavia.
Preventing Armed Conflict In Fyr Macedonia (1993-1999)Elliot ShortMediation, Referenda: Independence, PeacekeepingA timely diplomatic intervention by a range of international organisations and the deployment of a preventive peacekeeping mission helped the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to avoid armed conflict during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Macedonia
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in CroatiaElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Transition, MonitoringThe United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation, United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka, and United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Croatia.
Forced Displacement in Europe and Central AsiaDe Berry, Joanna P. and Petrini, BenjaminInternally Displaced Persons/RefugeesThis paper describes forced displacement in the Europe and Central Asia Region (ECA) and the vulnerabilities associated with being a displaced person. It analyzes the development challenges of forced displacement particularly protracted displacement in the region and the prospects for durable solutions. Displaced persons face challenges related to recovery of or access to housing and land, employment and livelihoods, access to services and public goods including health, education, and infrastructure, and accountable and responsive governance.
Historical Reconciliation and Protracted ConflictsEASI Working Grouproot causes, reconciliation, protracted conflictTwenty years after the end of the Cold War, the realization of hopes for a Euro-Atlantic world undivided, prosperous, and at peace remains elusive. There is as yet no sense of common goals between the enlarged Atlantic community of the West and many of the nations that emerged from the Soviet Union. No consensus exists on how the region should develop, what its economic future can be, or how both larger and smaller countries can take advantage of important global trends
Ending The Armed Conflict In AlbaniaElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Elections, Monitoring/Verification: Regional Organization
The Multinational Protection Force, an Italian-led peacekeeping mission mandated by the UN to restore order in Albania in 1997, succeeded in ending the armed conflict and restoring stability to Albania following a severe political crisis.
From Power Mediation to Dialogue Support? Assessing the European Union's Capabilities for Multi-Track DiplomacyKarin Goldner-Ebenthal, Veronique DudouetMediation, Dialogue, Multi-Track DiplomacyThis report seeks to answer this question, by assessing EU capabilities for multi-track diplomacy from a ‘whole-of-society’ perspective, as defined in the Horizon 2020-funded project “Whole-of-Society Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding” (WOSCAP). Multi-track diplomacy (MTD) is defined here as a specific approach to EU foreign policy intervention, with a primary emphasis on diplomatic initiatives aimed at supporting conflict prevention and peacebuilding, primarily through negotiation, mediation/or and dialogue across different levels (Tracks) of engagement within partner countries. MTD is highly compatible with a whole-of-society perspective on conflict prevention and peacebuilding, as it rests on the assumption that transforming complex and multi-dimensional conflicts requires an inclusive approach which does not solely focus on elite bargaining but requires constructive interactions with multiple conflict stakeholders and affected constituencies in order to reach a sustainable settlement. Such an approach thus implies a shift away from a sole reliance on traditional state diplomacy and Track I muscled mediation. It stresses instead the need for coordinated efforts by multiple third-party actors to support dialogue across various levels of society through diversified methods of ‘soft power’ diplomacy, according to the various stages of conflict and peacebuilding. The report will thus analyze the timing, nature and dimensions of EU multi-track diplomacy in war-affected or post-war contexts outside of its borders, in order to assess whether its actual capabilities for dialogue and mediation support match its ambitiously-stated goals with respect to proactive engagement, horizontal coherence and integration, and vertical inclusivity.