Asia

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Asia

Produced by like minded partner organizations, these evidence based policy articles and reports focus on the geographical region of Asia.

This table contains the entire repository of data and resources that the Better Evidence Project has collected and curated for Asia. To find resources you are interested in, simply use the search box on the top right of the table and search based on any parameters that you are interested in: Country name, Keywords, Type of Resource, Authors, etc. The table will automatically populate as you search.  You can expand the number of entries you’d like to see by toggling the show entries box (top left of the table) and selecting the number you’d like to see.

 

To help narrow your search by keywords, please refer to this post that features a running list of keywords in use in the repository.

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TitleAuthorsSubject KeywordsAbstractLinkCountry Name
Preventing An Interstate Conflict During The Diplomatic Crisis With IranElliot ShortSanctions, Diplomacy, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party
Ongoing international dialogue with the Government of Iran and the diplomatic initiatives of the EU3 and P5+1 helped to prevent the ongoing Iranian diplomatic crisis from escalating into an interstate armed conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-an-interstate-conflict-during-the-diplomatic-crisis-with-iran/Iran
Aid Coordination and Delivery : Yemen Policy Note 5World BankHumanitarian Engagement, Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, FragilityThis policy note outlines options for aid coordination and delivery in Yemen. It draws on a vast amount of experiences and lessons learned from post-conflict recovery and peace building processes both in Yemen and elsewhere over the past decade.Its central message is that timely international support and targeted financial aid will be critical to the implementation of a new peace agreement in Yemen, but delivery of this support will have to be carefully designed, sequenced, and coordinated in order to overcome divisions and assist Yemen in addressing the challenges driving the cyclical nature of conflict in the country. This note highlights the importance of focusing efforts in the immediate termon sequencing and coordinating while the conflict is ongoing, and negotiations move forward to support immediate recovery programming once negotiations achieve a positive outcome. This note argues that the peace dividend, that is recovery and development, and humanitarian assistance need to be effective immediately to build peace and overcome the causes of conflict. At the same time such arrangements should strengthen national systems and capacities that are needed toeliminate poverty, promote development objectives, and help to build peace.These challenges are compounded by the fact that expectations will be extremely high during the immediate aftermath of the latest round of conflict,absorptive capacity will remain limited for years to come, and the government capacity to deliver will be hindered by its lack of access and legitimacy in certain parts of the country even following a peace agreement.https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/28592Yemen
Reducing Armed Conflict In India (Manipur)Elliot ShortPeace Processes: Implementation, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State ActorsThe level of armed conflict taking place in the complex social and military environment of Manipur has been reduced thanks to a gradual peace process led by the Indian government.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/reducing-armed-conflict-in-india-manipur/India
Identity, Gender, and Conflict Drivers in PakistanJumaina SiddiquiGender, Identity and Conflict, Conflict Prevention
Based on a study conducted in the Pakistani town of Haripur that investigated children’s attitudes toward identity, this Peace Brief finds that identity-based divides are in fact not the primary drivers of conflict at the community level, but notes the continuing salience of gender identity, which produces differing social expectations and differing understandings of conflict resolution roles.
https://www.usip.org/publications/2017/03/identity-gender-and-conflict-drivers-pakistanPakistan
Ending The Armed Conflict In Indonesia (Maluku)Elliot ShortViolence Prevention, Peacekeeping, CeasefireThe armed conflict in Maluku was ended by an Indonesian military operation and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-maluku/Indonesia
Final Evaluation: Youth Engage Project Multi-stakeholders Collaboration in Reducing Youth Engagement in ViolenceBibhuti BistaConflict Resolution, Project Evaluation, This evaluation report assess the impact of the Youth Engage: Multi-stakeholder Collaboration in Reducing Youth Engagement in Violence that was implemented from December of 2014 to December of 2016 in Nepal. The report relies on a participatory approach to conduct the research. The report highlights the benefits of youth engagement and training to reduce violence in communities. This report emphasizes the importance of capacity building and strengthening the abilities of local organizations, local leaders, and law enforcement. The report looks at how development projects can foster dialogue and increase trust between stakeholders and as a result reduce their engagement in criminal and violent activities. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5db70e83fc0a966cf4cc42ea/t/5f3c1d7fb70ffd12b9aa4dc7/1597775233053/0501.pdfNepal
Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict On The Korean PeninsulaElliot ShortCeasefire, Diplomacy, Monitoring/Verification: LocalThe Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission and the Military Armistice Committee helped to contain the armed conflict between North and South Korea for over four decades, playing a key role in implementing the terms of the 1953 Armistice and monitoring adherence to them by both signatories.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-on-the-korean-peninsula/Korean Peninsula
Resolving the Militarised Territorial Dispute between Cambodia and Thailand Elliot ShortDiplomacy, Arbitration, Monitoring and VerificationRegional diplomacy led by ASEAN and arbitration by the ICJ resolved the militarised territorial dispute between Cambodia and Thailand which threatened to escalate into a major interstate conflict following border clashes in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-cambodia-and-thailand/Cambodia
Role of Provincial and Local Government in Reparation: Addressing Immediate Reparative needs of Conflict Victims in NepalInternational AlertTransitional justice, ReconciliationThe Nepal government must provide reparations as compensation for the harm caused and the trauma still being experienced by thousands of individuals and families following the aftermath of the decade long armed conflict.Reparation serves as a vehicle for acknowledging past violations and state responsibility for harms suffered by victims as well as a public commitment to respond to their enduring impact.3 Domestic reparation programs are considered to be the most effective tool for victims to receive reparation.Reparation must be “adequate, effective and prompt” building upon the principle of “full reparation”.1 Providing reparation is not just a policy choice but an obligation owed to victims as a result of an unlawful breach of international and domestic law during the conflict. Victims of gross violation of human rights and humanitarian law have a right to reparations and States have a corresponding obligation to respect, protect, and fulfill this right.2 4 It is important to note that reparation not only means compensation but measures including restitution, rehabilitation, satisfaction, and guarantees of non-recurrence.5 6 Reparation can take place as individual or collective, material or symbolic reparation, or both.7https://www.international-alert.org/publications/role-provincial-and-local-governments-reparation/Nepal
Breaking the Silos: Pragmatic National Approaches to PreventionPaige Arthur, Céline MonnierEarly Warning, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Inclusive Peacebuilding
Through the twin resolutions on sustaining peace, member states have agreed on the relevance of a cross-pillar approach to prevention. Now the challenge lies in implementation. One place to look for positive examples is at country level, where governments tend to have a more pragmatic and less “siloed” approach to prevention, addressing the different risk factors simultaneously. In this policy briefing, we draw on examples from Côte d’Ivoire and Timor-Leste to illustrate how countries have developed integrated actions on prevention that cut across sectors, including security, development, and human rights. We then highlight options for the UN to better support these strategies
through cross-pillar approaches and identify practical ways forward for
governments implementing prevention approaches.
https://cic.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/pragmatic_national_approaches_to_prevention_final_august_31_web.pdfTimor-Leste
Ending The Armed Conflict In Indonesia (North Maluku)Elliot ShortViolence Prevention, Religion and Conflict, Human RightsThe deployment of Indonesian security forces to North Maluku ended the intercommunal conflict and prevented further fighting.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-north-maluku/Indonesia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In NepalElliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Governance: Transition, Peace Processes: ImplementationThe United Nations Mission in Nepal worked with local people and organisations to ensure that the peace process stayed on track while facilitating the Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration and military integration process, preventing a conflict relapse in Nepal.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-nepal/Nepal
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Bodoland)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State Actors
The armed conflict between Bodo armed groups and Indian security services in Assam was finally ended in 2020 after several attempts to find a negotiated settlement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-assam/India
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Mizoram)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Peace Process, Multi-Track Diplomacy
The armed conflicts in Mizoram, India, were ended after a lengthy negotiation process between armed groups and the Government of India.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-mizoram/India
Ending the Armed Conflict in TajikistanElliot ShortPeacekeeping, Mediation, Peace AgreementA series of multilateral peacekeeping and monitoring missions and the mediation efforts of the UN and the Inter-Tajik Dialogue helped to bring an end to the intrastate armed conflict in Tajikistan in 1997. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-tajikistan/Tajikistan
Ending The Armed Conflict In NepalElliot ShortGovernance: Transition, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations, Ratification: Constitution
Nepalese political parties worked together with widespread public support to find a political solution to the ongoing armed conflict in Nepal and mediate the negotiation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which brought an end to a decade of war and created the framework for a lasting peace.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-nepal/Nepal
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Disputes Between China And Russia/Soviet UnionElliot ShortNegotiations, Dialogue, Ratification: Peace AgreementThe long-standing border dispute between China and Russia (which almost sparked a war in the 1960s) was resolved, dramatically reducing the chance of an interstate conflicthttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-disputes-between-china-and-russia-soviet-union/China, Russia/Soviet Union
Ending The Armed Conflict In Indonesia (Central Sulawesi)Elliot ShortReligion and Conflict, Peacekeeping, NegotiationsThe intercommunal violence in Central Sulawesi was ended by an Indonesian military deployment and the mediation of a peace agreement.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-central-sulawesi/Indonesia
Ending the Armed Conflict in Indonesia (Aceh)Elliot ShortMediation, Peace AgreementNegotiations mediated by the Crisis Management Initiative resulted in the Helsinki Agreement, which brought an end to the armed conflict in the Indonesian province of Acehhttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-indonesia-aceh/Indonesia
Containing the Armed Conflict in KashmirElliot ShortDiplomacy, PeacekeepingThe United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has helped to prevent a major interstate war between India and Pakistan in Kashmir since 1949.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/containing-the-armed-conflict-in-kashmir/Kashmir
Final Evaluation of the PBF project “Overcoming barriers to strengthen the voices of all women in Rakhine State for social cohesion and peace”Joanna Brooks, Aye Myat ThuGender, Rule of Law, Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E)
This evaluation is a final evaluation of the UNDP and UNFPA implemented Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) project in Rakhine State and covers the full implementation period of the project from April 2018 – September 2019. The evaluation team found that despite the overly ambitious design of the project given the local context, and short 18-month implementation period, the project managed to achieve some impressive results and successfully addressed the identified drivers of conflict - a lack of women’s empowerment and access to justice. It contributed to the peacebuilding process by working with different communities and had considerable catalytic impact on both UNDP and UNFPA’s programming. Key results were identified in terms of expanding the capacities of the project’s implementing partners and empowering women and girls as well as boys and men in raising their awareness on gender-based violence (GBV) and strengthening their access to justice through the provision of legal advice, counselling and representationhttps://www.un.org/peacebuilding/sites/www.un.org.peacebuilding/files/documents/2020_04_09_rakhine_rol_final_evaluation.pdfMyanmar
New Paths and Policies towards Conflict Prevention: Chinese and Swiss PerspectivesCourtney J. Fung, Björn Gehrmann, Rachel F. Madenyika, Jason G. TowerConflict PreventionThis book explores the discourse on conflict prevention and peacebuilding by bringing together researchers from China and Switzerland over a series policy dialogues. The Charter of the United Nations, adopted in the immediate aftermath of World War II, is clear about the fundamental necessity for the international community to act in partnership to prevent violent conflict. Given recent shifts in global power dynamics, there is an apparent need for international policy issues to be addressed in ways that are inclusive of a wider variety of perspectives and approaches. Chinese policy actors are increasingly interested in fostering their own discourse on issues of prevention and peacebuilding, rooted in Chinese experience, and engaging with peers from other contexts. The chapters in this volume explore the rationale for conflict prevention and review prevailing academic and practitioner discourses on fundamental questions such as the rationales for why conflicts should be prevented and whether ‘mainstream approaches’ are still relevant. This book will be of interest to students of peacebuilding, conflict resolution, Chinese politics, and International Relations.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12178China
Ending The Armed Conflict In BangladeshElliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Mediation, Peace Agreement
The Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord brought an end to two decades of armed conflict and formally recognised the special status of the indigenous population.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-bangladesh/Bangladesh
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Tripura)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Ceasefire, Governance: Power SharingThe armed conflict in Tripura between the Indian government and Tripuri armed groups was ended by a series of negotiated settlements with several armed opposition groups and the stabilisation of the international border.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-tripura/India
Building Peace from the Margins: Borderlands, Brokers and Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka and NepalJonathan Goodhand, Markus Mayer, Oliver WaltonWar-peace transitions, Borderland brokersThis policy brief draws on findings from a two-year collaborative research project on the role of borderland regions in war to peace transitions in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The research examines political and economic changes in ‘post-war’ transition from the perspective of state margins, and, by doing so, it inverts the top-down, centrist orientation that informs post-war peacebuilding and development policy.https://www.international-alert.org/publications/building-peace-margins/Nepal
Land Conflict WatchLand Conflict WatchLand Tenure Conflict DataLand Conflict Watch is a research-based data journalism project that maps, collects, and analyses ongoing land conflicts in India. It not only presents a macro picture at the national level but also zooms in to give details of each conflict at the micro level.https://www.landconflictwatch.org/#homeIndia
South Asia's Nuclear Challenges: Interlocking Views from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United StatesLora Saalman, Petr TopychkanovNuclear postureThis study provides an overview of views on nuclear postures and escalation affecting South Asia, based on 119 interviews conducted in 2020, without attribution, with military, nuclear, political and regional experts from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United States. These discussions revealed a number of interlocking points that offer building blocks for both official and non-official engagement on such issues as no first use (NFU), lowered nuclear thresholds, conventional and nuclear entanglement, escalate to de-escalate, and emerging technology development.https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/other-publications/south-asias-nuclear-challenges-interlocking-views-india-pakistan-china-russia-and-united-statesChina
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In CambodiaElliot ShortMonitoring/Verification: United Nations, Governance: Transition, Demobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR)
The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia maintained peace and stability in post-conflict Cambodia until a national government was formed in 1993.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-cambodia/Cambodia
Mitigating The Impact of Armed Conflict on Civilians in the Philippines Elliot ShortLocal Action, PeacebuildingBy creating and maintaining zones of peace, local people and organisations reduced the impact of armed conflict on the civilian population.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/mitigating-the-impact-of-armed-conflict-on-civilians-in-the-philippines/Philippines
Resolving the Militarised Territorial Dispute between Cambodia and Thailand Elliot ShortDiplomacy, Arbitration, Monitoring and VerificationRegional diplomacy led by ASEAN and arbitration by the ICJ resolved the militarised territorial dispute between Cambodia and Thailand which threatened to escalate into a major interstate conflict following border clashes in 2011.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-cambodia-and-thailand/Thailand
The Dynamics of Conflict, Development Assistance and Peace-Building : Sri Lanka 2000-05World BankDiplomacy, Development, Peace Processes: Implementation
Significant transformations in the socio-political and economic landscape of Sri Lanka in recent years encouraged five development partners-World Bank, Asia Foundation, and the governments of the United Kingdom, Netherlands and Sweden to collaborate on a conflict assessment in 2005. This reflects a growing trend in the development partner community of combining efforts, pooling resources, and taking advantage of comparative strengths to engage in conflict analysis exercises. The multi-donor conflict assessment revisits the underlying structures of conflict, identified in the previous conflict assessment, and explores the current dynamics of conflict factors with a particular focus on the peace process and international engagement. This note presents key findings of the assessment, in particular, the approaches supported by development partners in Sri Lanka. While this is drawn solely from the Sri Lanka experience, it is likely to have a broad relevance to many such countries. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12779Sri-Lanka
Preventing a Conflict Relapse in KyrgyzstanElliot ShortLocally-led peacemaking initiatives, DiplomacyThe measures taken by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and Kyrgyzstani people and organisations helped to prevent political crises and social unrest from escalating into armed conflict in 2010.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-kyrgyzstan/Kyrgystan
Consolidating Peace through Inclusive Access to Livelihoods in NepalPhil VernonInclusive peace, Livelihood accessImproving access to livelihoods opportunities for men and women from different identity groups is critical for peace. This is especially true in Nepal, where ethnic, religious, caste and gender-based exclusion has long been understood as a cause of conflict. Nepal is at a crucial phase in its peace process. High-level agreements have been reached, the new constitution agreed, and elections held. People are now expecting a peace dividend.https://www.international-alert.org/publications/consolidating-peace-through-inclusive-access-livelihoods-nepal/Nepal
Why Does Timor-Leste Remain Fragile? Takashi Daimon-SatoDevelopment, Fragility,State-buildingThis article focuses on the concept of “fragility,” which gained prominence in literature on conflict-driven countries and serves as an analytical tool for policy analysis. Using this concept, this article provides a review of Timor-Leste since its independence in 2002. The country has achieved high economic growth, though the economy has remained fragile in terms of its high dependence on external factors, namely oil revenues. This study suggests that foreign aid and investments do not automatically improve fragility in resource-dependent economies unless they help diversify the monoculture economy, based upon democratic consensus-building among stakeholders. https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12720Timor-Leste
Breaking the Mold: Lessons from Sixteen Years of Innovative UN Political Engagement in NepalRebecca Brubaker,United Nations, peace processes, locally led UN political engagement in Nepal between 2002 and 2018 has long been considered a successful example of sustained and innovative support to a critical peace process. Many governments in the broader region, however, have largely eschewed international assistance in resolving conflicts, perceiving it as an unnecessary infringement on state sovereignty or a threat to regional balances of power. This paper looks at lessons the UN could learn from its political presence in Nepal. It summarizes the four periods of the UN’s involvement, highlights best practices, and reviews the challenges faced and how they shaped the range of actions available to the UN.https://www.ipinst.org/2021/02/lessons-from-sixteen-years-of-innovative-un-political-engagement-in-nepalNepal
Preventing Renewed Interstate Conflict Between Israel And SyriaElliot ShortCeasefire, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations, PeacekeepingThe United Nations Disengagement Observer Force has helped to prevent renewed war between Israel and Syria since 1974.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-renewed-interstate-conflict-between-israel-and-syria/Syria, Israel
Nine Years of Nonviolent Peaceforce in Sri Lanka Lessons Learned in Implementing Unarmed Civilian PeacekeepingChristine SchweitzerLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Peacekeeping, Dialogue, Early Warning
This report evaluates the work that Nonviolent Peaceforce (NP) in Sri Lanka and the lessons that can be drawn from their experience in developing the tool of unarmed civilian peacekeeping. Nonviolence Peaceforce worked on the protection of children, IDP protection, facilitating dialogue and cooperation between communities, grass roots early warning systems, and building the capacity of local actors to engage in violence prevention. The report highlights the importance of good processes and planning, building relationships and trust amongst different parties involved, and the critical need for impartiality and non-partisanship when acting as a third-party. The report examines how unarmed civilian peacemaking goes beyond simply an unarmed version of military peacemaking and provides recommendations for future projects utilizing this approach to resolving conflicts. https://nonviolentpeaceforce.org/images/publications/9yearsNPSL-Implementing_UCP-final.pdfSri Lanka
Ending The Armed Conflict In Timor-LesteElliot ShortPeacekeeping,Referenda: Independence, Governance: TransitionA multilateral military intervention led by Australia brought an end to the armed conflict in Timor-Leste in 2000 after decades of instability and war.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-timor-leste/Timor-Leste
Conflict and Development : Lessons from South AsiaEjaz Ghani, Lakshmi IyerEconomics and Conflict, Climate and Conflict, GovernanceSouth Asia is the second most violent place on earth after Iraq. Conflicts in Afghanistan and Pakistan have attracted global attention. Parts of India, Sri Lanka, and Nepal have experienced long-running conflict. Conflicts result in death, misery, social trauma, destruction of infrastructure, and have huge spillover effects. What is conflict? Where is it concentrated? Is conflict a problem for development, or a failure of development? And what should policy makers do?https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/10157Asia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Philippines (Mindanao – Milf)Elliot ShortMulti-Track Diplomacy, Governance:Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: Third PartyLengthy negotiations mediated by the International Contact Group (composed of four governments and four NGOS), supported by international monitoring missions and local peace infrastructure, helped to end the armed conflict on Mindanao. https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philippines-mindanao-milf/Philippines
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Qatar And Saudi ArabiaElliot ShortMediation, Ratification: Peace Agreement, Monitoring/Verification: Third Party
The territorial dispute between Qatar and Saudi was resolved, preventing an interstate conflict from erupting over the contested territory.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-qatar-and-saudi-arabia/Qatar, Saudi Arabia
Preventing Armed Conflict In The Caspian SeaElliot ShortNatural Resources and Conflict, Negotiations, Economics and ConflictAn interstate conflict between Iran and Azerbaijan was prevented and the risk of war between any of the littoral states on the Caspian Sea was demonstrably reduced.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-armed-conflict-in-the-caspian-sea/The Caspian Sea
Ending The Armed Conflict In The Philipinnes (Soldiers Of The Filipino People/young Officers’ Union/revolutionary Nationalist Alliance)Elliot ShortArmed Non-State Actors, Dialogue, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
A peace agreement mediated by an agency of the Government of the Philippines ended the repeated efforts of the Soldiers of the Filipino People, the Young Officers’ Union, and the Revolutionary Nationalist Alliance factions of the military to seize power with forcehttps://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-philipinnes-soldiers/Philippines
South Asia's Nuclear Challenges: Interlocking Views from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United StatesLora Saalman, Petr TopychkanovNuclear postureThis study provides an overview of views on nuclear postures and escalation affecting South Asia, based on 119 interviews conducted in 2020, without attribution, with military, nuclear, political and regional experts from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United States. These discussions revealed a number of interlocking points that offer building blocks for both official and non-official engagement on such issues as no first use (NFU), lowered nuclear thresholds, conventional and nuclear entanglement, escalate to de-escalate, and emerging technology development.https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/other-publications/south-asias-nuclear-challenges-interlocking-views-india-pakistan-china-russia-and-united-statesIndia
South Asia's Nuclear Challenges: Interlocking Views from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United StatesLora Saalman, Petr TopychkanovNuclear postureThis study provides an overview of views on nuclear postures and escalation affecting South Asia, based on 119 interviews conducted in 2020, without attribution, with military, nuclear, political and regional experts from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United States. These discussions revealed a number of interlocking points that offer building blocks for both official and non-official engagement on such issues as no first use (NFU), lowered nuclear thresholds, conventional and nuclear entanglement, escalate to de-escalate, and emerging technology development.https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/other-publications/south-asias-nuclear-challenges-interlocking-views-india-pakistan-china-russia-and-united-statesRussia
Building Peace from the Margins: Borderlands, Brokers and Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka and NepalJonathan Goodhand, Markus Mayer, Oliver WaltonWar-peace transitions, Borderland brokersThis policy brief draws on findings from a two-year collaborative research project on the role of borderland regions in war to peace transitions in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The research examines political and economic changes in ‘post-war’ transition from the perspective of state margins, and, by doing so, it inverts the top-down, centrist orientation that informs post-war peacebuilding and development policy.https://www.international-alert.org/publications/building-peace-margins/Sri Lanka
Forced Displacement in Europe and Central AsiaDe Berry, Joanna P. and Petrini, BenjaminInternally Displaced Persons/RefugeesThis paper describes forced displacement in the Europe and Central Asia Region (ECA) and the vulnerabilities associated with being a displaced person. It analyzes the development challenges of forced displacement particularly protracted displacement in the region and the prospects for durable solutions. Displaced persons face challenges related to recovery of or access to housing and land, employment and livelihoods, access to services and public goods including health, education, and infrastructure, and accountable and responsive governance.https://mars.gmu.edu/handle/1920/12769Asia
Does Reconciliation Prevent Future Atrocities?Kate LonerganReconciliation, Violence Prevention, Post-Conflict Peacebuilding
What are atrocity crimes, why and when do they arise, and how can peacebuilding practice help to prevent them? This report delves into the conceptual foundations of reconciliation and atrocity prevention in the context of Sri Lanka’s history of conflict and ongoing reconciliation process, analyzing institutional-level reconciliation efforts and drawing from a randomized field experiment in an interpersonal reconciliation program. It suggests that by understanding the conditions under which reconciliation is most effective, peacebuilding practice will be better placed to achieve its goals after violent conflict.https://www.usip.org/publications/2017/09/does-reconciliation-prevent-future-atrocitiesSri Lanka
Ending The Armed Conflict In The Philippines (Cordillera)Elliot ShortCeasefire, Governance: Power Sharing, Monitoring/Verification: LocalThe peace process between the Government of the Philippines and the Cordillera People’s Liberation Army that began in 1986 reached a formal peace agreement in 2011 which continues to be implemented with oversight from a monitoring committee.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-the-philippines-cordillera/Philippines
South Asia's Nuclear Challenges: Interlocking Views from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United StatesLora Saalman, Petr TopychkanovNuclear postureThis study provides an overview of views on nuclear postures and escalation affecting South Asia, based on 119 interviews conducted in 2020, without attribution, with military, nuclear, political and regional experts from India, Pakistan, China, Russia and the United States. These discussions revealed a number of interlocking points that offer building blocks for both official and non-official engagement on such issues as no first use (NFU), lowered nuclear thresholds, conventional and nuclear entanglement, escalate to de-escalate, and emerging technology development.https://www.sipri.org/publications/2021/other-publications/south-asias-nuclear-challenges-interlocking-views-india-pakistan-china-russia-and-united-statesPakistan
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Nagaland)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Ceasefire, Armed Non-State Actors
An ongoing peace process effectively contained the armed conflict in Nagaland for 14 years until a more comprehensive settlement was reached in 2015.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-nagaland/India
Ending Armed Conflict In CambodiaElliot ShortMediation, Peace Agreement, Governance: Power SharingAn October 1991 peace agreement formally ended the armed conflict in Cambodia after decades of devastation, war, and genocide.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-armed-conflict-in-cambodia/Cambodia
Ending The Armed Conflict In Philipinnes (Mindanao – Mnlf)Elliot ShortGovernance: Power Sharing, Inclusive PeacebuildingNegotiations mediated by the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) and the governments of Indonesia and Libya, and supported by an OIC Joint Ceasefire Commission, ended the armed conflict between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philipinnes-mindanao-mnlf/Philippines
Ending The Armed Conflict In Philippines (Revolutionary Workers’ Party -Mindanao)Elliot ShortLocally-led Peacemaking Initiatives, Peace Processes: Implementation, CeasefireNegotiations mediated by the local NGO Balay Mindanaw stopped the fighting between the Revolutionary Workers’ Party – Mindanao and the Government of Philippines in 2005 and ongoing efforts, although unable to produce a peace agreement, have prevented further conflict.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-philippines-revolutionary-workers-party-mindanao/Philippines
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Indonesia (Central Sulawesi)Elliot ShortElections, Governance: Power Sharing, Violent Extremism
Stability in Central Sulawesi was restored, ending the intercommunal conflict and preventing a conflict relapse.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-indonesia-central-sulawesi/Indonesia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Indonesia (Aceh)Elliot ShortDemobilization, Disarmament, Reintegration (DDR), Mediation, Peace Processes: ImplementationThe International Monitoring Presence and the Aceh Monitoring Mission helped to prevent a conflict relapse in the Indonesian province of Aceh.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-indonesia-aceh/Indonesia
Preventing A Conflict Relapse In Timor-LesteElliot ShortGovernance: Constitutions, Internally Displaced Persons/Refugees, Monitoring/Verification: United Nations
A transitional international administration and a peacekeeping mission helped to prevent a conflict relapse in Timor-Leste and laid the foundations for an accountable state governed by a constitution and an elected government to be built.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/preventing-a-conflict-relapse-in-timor-leste/Timor-Leste
Ending The Armed Conflict In India (Assam)Elliot ShortMigration and Conflict, Ceasefire, Peace ProcessA gradual peace process has reduced the scale of the armed conflict in Assam while negotiations involving local people and organisations, several layers of the Indian government, and Assamese armed groups are being held.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/ending-the-armed-conflict-in-india-assam/India
War State, Trauma State: Why Afghanistan Remains Stuck in ConflictErik Goepnertrauma state, civil war, violence, protracted conflictAfghanistan has become a trauma state, stuck in a vicious cycle: war causes trauma, which drives more war, which in turn causes more trauma, and so on. Thanks to 40 years of uninterrupted war, Afghans suffer from extremely high rates of post‐​traumatic stress disorder and other mental illnesses, substance abuse, and diminished impulse control. Research shows that those negative effects make people more violent toward others. As a result, violence can become normalized as a legitimate means of problem solving and goal achievement, and that appears to have fueled Afghanistan’s endless war. Thus, Afghanistan will be difficult, if not impossible, to fix.https://www.cato.org/policy-analysis/war-state-trauma-state-why-afghanistan-remains-stuck-conflictAfghanistan
Resolving The Militarised Territorial Dispute Between Eritrea And YemenElliot ShortDiplomacy: Track 1, Mediation, Rule of LawThe immediate threat of armed conflict was ended and the territorial dispute over the Hanish Islands was resolved by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.https://bep.carterschool.gmu.edu/resolving-the-militarised-territorial-dispute-between-eritrea-and-yemen/Yemen, Eritrea
The Role of Development Aid in Conflict Transformation: Facilitating Empowerment Processes and Community BuildingMarcie MerskyEconomics and Conflict, Humanitarian Engagement, Locally-led Peacemaking Initiatives
This article examines both the theoretical assumptions and expectations, as well as the practical experiences, of empowerment approaches within the field of development aid, with a particular focus their potential for conflict transformation. The authors build upon the recent discourse in development policy that discusses the extent to which development cooperation can effectively contribute towards crisis prevention and conflict transformation. It attempts to analyze and build from three inter-related approaches: The do-no-harm approach which primarily aims to avoid doing more harm than good, and is vitally concerned with the unintended negative impacts of development aid, which too often tends to aggravate conflict rather than contribute to its resolution; the local capacities for peace approach which seeks to identify potential entry points for conflict transformation through development aid, and recommends that external donor agencies should focus on supporting local capacities for peace; and the discourse on peace and conflict impact assessment approach which stresses the need for a thorough analysis of the conflict context. The article examines these approaches through the practical experience of traditional relief and development projects working on complex emergencies in the field of community development. The authors explore the nexus between conflict transformation on the one hand and participatory and empowerment approaches on the other. They critically assess the potential of common empowerment approaches within community building not only to avoid doing harm but also to make a substantive contribution to conflict transformation at the local level. The empirical base of the chapter lies within participatory research and in the experiences of bilateral and multilateral development cooperation in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka. The authors explore some common participatory and empowerment approaches within the field of community development, as well as constraints, dilemmas and ambivalences for the facilitation of empowerment processes through development aid within complex emergencies. The authors conclude with future prospects on the potentials, constraints and ambivalence of empowerment approaches and recommend a more political role for development aid in complex emergencies as it engages in more inclusive community building through processes of empowerment and recognition.http://hdl.handle.net/1920/12900Sri Lanka